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Definition of profit ratios

Profit Ratios Image 1

profit ratios

ratios based on sales revenue for a period. A measure of
profit is divided by sales revenue to compute a profit ratio. For example,
gross margin is divided by sales revenue to compute the gross margin
profit ratio. Dividing bottom-line profit (net income) by sales revenue
gives the profit ratio that is generally called return on sales.



Related Terms:

Profitability ratios

ratios that focus on the profitability of the firm. profit margins measure performance
with relation to sales. Rate of return ratios measure performance relative to some measure of size of the
investment.


After-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income to net sales.


Asset activity ratios

ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.


Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.


Book profit

The cumulative book income plus any gain or loss on disposition of the assets on termination of the SAT.



Capitalization ratios

Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. Capitalization ratios can be
interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.


cash flow from operating activities, or cash flow from profit

This equals the cash inflow from sales during the period minus the cash
outflow for expenses during the period. Keep in mind that to measure
net income, generally accepted accounting principles require the use of
accrual-basis accounting. Starting with the amount of accrual-basis net
income, adjustments are made for changes in accounts receivable,
inventories, prepaid expenses, and operating liabilities—and depreciation
expense is added back (as well as any other noncash outlay
expense)—to arrive at cash flow from profit, which is formally labeled
cash flow from operating activities in the externally reported statement
of cash flows.


Profit Ratios Image 2

Common stock ratios

ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
(cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.


Controllable profit

The profit made by a division after deducting only those expenses that can be controlled by the
divisional manager and ignoring those expenses that are outside the divisional manager’s control.


Cost–volume–profit analysis (CVP)

A method for understanding the relationship between revenue, cost and sales volume.


cost-volume-profit (CVP)

analysis a procedure that examines
changes in costs and volume levels and the resulting
effects on net income (profits)


Coverage ratios

ratios used to test the adequacy of cash flows generated through earnings for purposes of
meeting debt and lease obligations, including the interest coverage ratio and the fixed charge coverage ratio.


Customary payout ratios

A range of payout ratios that is typical based on an analysis of comparable firms.


Feasible target payout ratios

Payout ratios that are consistent with the availability of excess funds to make
cash dividend payments.


Financial leverage ratios

Related: capitalization ratios.


gross margin, or gross profit

This first-line measure of profit
equals sales revenue less cost of goods sold. This is profit before operating
expenses and interest and income tax expenses are deducted. Financial
reporting standards require that gross margin be reported in
external income statements. Gross margin is a key variable in management
profit reports for decision making and control. Gross margin
doesn’t apply to service businesses that don’t sell products.


GROSS PROFIT

The profit a company makes before expenses and taxes are taken away.


Gross profit

The difference between the price at which goods or services are sold and the cost of sales.
Income The revenue generated from the sale of goods or services.



Gross profit

The result of subtracting cost of goods sold from sales. Synonymous with gross margin.


Gross Profit

Revenue less cost of goods sold.


Gross profit margin

Gross profit divided by sales, which is equal to each sales dollar left over after paying
for the cost of goods sold.


Gross Profit Margin

Gross profit divided by revenue.


Leverage ratios

Measures of the relative contribution of stockholders and creditors, and of the firm's ability
to pay financing charges. Value of firm's debt to the total value of the firm.


Liquidity ratios

ratios that measure a firm's ability to meet its short-term financial obligations on time.


Liquidity ratios

ratios that measure a firm's ability to meet its short-term financial obligations on time.


Market value ratios

ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.


Net profit

See operating profit.


Net profit margin

Net income divided by sales; the amount of each sales dollar left over after all expenses
have been paid.



Operating profit

The profit made by the business for an accounting period, equal to gross profit less selling, finance, administration etc. expenses, but before deducting interest or taxation.


operating profit

See earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT).


Operating profit margin

The ratio of operating margin to net sales.


phantom profit

a temporary absorption costing profit caused
by producing more inventory than is sold


PROFIT

What’s left over after you subtract the cost of goods sold and all your expenses from sales.


Profit

The difference between income and expenses.


profit

The general term profit is not precisely defined; it may refer to net
gains over a period of time, or cash inflows less cash outflows for an
investment, or earnings before or after certain costs and expenses are
deducted from income or revenue. In the world of business, profit is
measured by the application of generally accepted accounting principles
(GAAP). In the income statement, the final, bottom-line profit is generally
labeled net income and equals revenue (plus any extraordinary gains)
less all expenses (and less any extraordinary losses) for the period. Inter-
nal management profit reports include several profit lines: gross margin,
contribution margin, operating profit (earnings before interest and
income tax), and earnings before income tax. External income statements
report gross margin (also called gross profit) and often report one
or more other profit lines, although practice varies from business to
business in this regard.


Profit and Loss account

A financial statement measuring the profit or loss of a business – income less expenses – for an accounting period.


profit and loss statement (P&L statement)

This is an alternative moniker
for an income statement or for an internal management profit report.
Actually, it’s a misnomer because a business has either a profit or a loss
for a period. Accordingly, it should be profit or loss statement, but the
term has caught on and undoubtedly will continue to be profit and loss
statement.


Profit before interest and taxes (PBIT)

See EBIT.


profit center

a responsibility center in which managers are responsible for generating revenues and planning and controlling all expenses


Profit center

An entity within a corporation against which both revenues and costs are
recorded. This results in a separate financial statement for each such entity, which
reveals a net profit or loss, as well as a return on any assets used by the entity.


Profit centre

A division or unit of an organization that is responsible for achieving profit targets.


Profit margin

Indicator of profitability. The ratio of earnings available to stockholders to net sales.
Determined by dividing net income by revenue for the same 12-month period. Result is shown as a
percentage.


profit margin

the ratio of income to sales


Profit Margin Ratio

A measure of how much profit is earned on each dollar of sales. It
is calculated by dividing the net income available for distribution to
shareholders by the total sales generated during the period.


profit module

This concept refers to a separate source of revenue and
profit within a business organization, which should be identified for
management analysis and control. A profit module may focus on one
product or a cluster of products. profit in this context is not the final, bottom-
line net income of the business as a whole. Rather, other measures
of profit are used for management analysis and decision-making purposes—
such as gross margin, contribution margin, or operating profit
(earnings before interest and income tax).


profit sharing

an incentive payment to employees that is
contingent on organizational or individual performance


Profit Sharing Plan

A retirement plan generally funded by a percentage of company
profits, but into which contributions can be made in the absence of profits.


profit-volume graph

a visual representation of the amount
of profit or loss associated with each level of sales


Profitability index

The present value of the future cash flows divided by the initial investment. Also called
the benefit-cost ratio.


Profitability index

See cash value added.


Profitability Index

A method for determining the profitability of an investment. It is
calculated by dividing the present value of the future net cash flows
by the initial cash investment.


profitability index

Ratio of net present value to initial investment.


profitability index (Pl)

a ratio that compares the present value of net cash flows to the present value of the net investment


pseudo microprofit center

a center for which a surrogate
of market value must be used to measure output revenue


Rate of return ratios

ratios that are designed to measure the profitability of the firm in relation to various
measures of the funds invested in the firm.


real microprofit center

a center whose output has a market value


Reserve ratios

Specified percentages of deposits, established by the Federal Reserve Board, that banks must
keep in a non-interest-bearing account at one of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks.


Retained profits

The amount of profit after deducting interest, taxation and dividends that is retained by the business.


Risk-adjusted profitability

A probability used to determine a "sure" expected value (sometimes called a
certainty equivalent) that would be equivalent to the actual risky expected value.


Short-term solvency ratios

ratios used to judge the adequacy of liquid assets for meeting short-term
obligations as they come due, including
1) the current ratio,
2) the acid-test ratio,
3) the inventory turnover ratio, and
4) the accounts receivable turnover ratio.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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