 Financial Terms Principal value

# Definition of Principal value See Par value.

# Related Terms:

Prevails when the value of a whole group of assets exactly equals the sum of the
values of the individual assets that make up the group of assets. Stated differently, the principle that the net
present value of a set of independent projects is just the sum of the net present values of the individual projects.

## Discount bond

Debt sold for less than its principal value. If a discount bond pays no interest, it is called a
zero coupon bond.

## Face value

The maturity value of a security. Also known as par value,
principal value, or redemption value.

## Account Value

The sum of all the interest options in your policy, including interest.

## Accumulated Value

An amount of money invested plus the interest earned on that money.

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.

## approximated net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products using a
simulated net realizable value at the split-off point; approximated
value is computed as final sales price minus
incremental separate costs ## Benefit Value

The amount of cash payable on a benefit.

## Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.

## Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.

## BOOK VALUE

An asset’s cost basis minus accumulated depreciation.

## Book Value

The value of an asset as carried on the balance sheet of a
company. In reference to the value of a company, it is the net worth
(equity) of the company.

## Book value

An asset’s original cost, less any depreciation that has been subsequently incurred.

## book value

Net worth of the firm’s assets or liabilities according
to the balance sheet.

## book value and book value per share

Generally speaking, these terms
refer to the balance sheet value of an asset (or less often of a liability) or
the balance sheet value of owners’ equity per share. Either term emphasizes
that the amount recorded in the accounts or on the books of a business
is the value being used. The total of the amounts reported for
owners’ equity in its balance sheet is divided by the number of stock
shares of a corporation to determine the book value per share of its capital
stock.

## BOOK VALUE OF COMMON STOCK

The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a company’s assets were sold on the balance sheet’s date. Book value equals:
(Stockholders’ equity) / (Common stock shares outstanding) ## Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).

## Book Value per Share

The book value of a company divided by the number of shares
outstanding

an activity that is necessary for the operation of the business but for which a customer would not want to pay

## CAPITAL IN EXCESS OF PAR VALUE

What a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share.

Book value.

## Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.

## Cash Surrender Value

This is the amount available to the owner of a life insurance policy upon voluntary termination of the policy before it becomes payable by the death of the life insured. This does not apply to term insurance but only to those policies which have reduced paid up values and cash surrender values. A cash surrender in lieu of death benefit usually has tax implications.

## Cash Surrender Value

Benefit that entitles a policy owner to an amount of money upon cancellation of a policy.

A method of investment appraisal that calculates the ratio of the net present value of an
investment to the initial capital investment.

## Conversion value

Also called parity value, the value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately.

Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge
to cover the cost of capital invested in the business.

a measure of the extent to which income exceeds the dollar cost of capital; calculated
as income minus (invested capital times the cost of capital percentage)

Term used by the consulting firm Stern Stewart for profit remaining after deduction of the cost
of the capital employed.

## Exercise value

The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money
option.

## Exit value

The value that an asset is expected to have at the time it is sold at a predetermined
point in the future.

## Expected value

The weighted average of a probability distribution.

## Expected Value

The value of the possible outcomes of a variable weighted by the
probabilities of each outcome

## Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.

## Extraordinary positive value

A positive net present value.

See: Par value.

## Face Value

The nominal value of a security. Also called the par value.

## face value

Payment at the maturity of the bond. Also called par value or maturity value.

## Face Value

The payoff value of a bond upon maturity. Also called par value. See principal.

## Face Value

The nominal value which appears on the face of a document recording an entitlement, generally an amount of money that has to be repaid on the maturity of a debt instrument.

## Fair market value

The price that an asset or service will fetch on the open market.

## Fair Market Value

The highest price available, expressed in terms of cash, in an open and unrestricted market between informed, prudent parties acting at arm's length and under no compulsion to transact.

## Fair Value

The amount at which an asset could be purchased or sold or a liability incurred or
settled in a current transaction between willing and informed parties. When a quoted market price
is available, fair value is the product of the number of units in question times that market price.
That product also is referred to as the item's market value. For traded securities, the terms fair
value and market value are synonymous. When no quoted market price is available for the item
in question, fair value must be estimated.

## Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.

## Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.

## Future Value

The amount a given payment, or series of payments, will be worth
at the end of a specified time period, if invested at a given rate

## future value

the amount to which one or more sums of
money invested at a specified interest rate will grow over
a specified number of time periods

## Future value

The value that a sum of money (the present value) earning
compound interest will have in the future.

## future value

Amount to which an investment will grow after earning interest.

## Future Value

The amount to which a payment or series of payments will grow by a given future date when compounded by a given interest rate. FVIF future value interest factor.

## Generally Accepted Accounting Principals (GAAP)

A technical accounting term that encompasses the
conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted accounting practice at a particular time.

## Intrinsic value of a firm

The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the
required rate of return.

## Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

## Investment value

Related:straight value.

## Liquidation value

Net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt.

## Liquidation Value

The net proceeds (after taxes and expenses) of selling the assets
of a company at fair market prices

## liquidation value

Net proceeds that would be realized by selling the firm’s assets and paying off its creditors.

## Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.

## Market value

1) The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold.
2) The value investors believe a firm is worth; calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the
current market price of a firm's shares.

## Market value

The price at which a product or service could be sold on the open market.

## Market Value

A quoted market price per unit times the number of units being valued. Synonymous
with fair value for financial instruments when a quoted market price is available.

Market value of equity minus book value.

## market-value balance sheet

Financial statement that uses the market value of all assets and liabilities.

## Market value ratios

Ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.

## Market value-weighted index

An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average
of the returns on each security in the index, with the weights proportional to outstanding market value.

## Maturity value

Related: par value.

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.

## net asset value

The value of all the holdings of a mutual fund, less the fund's liabilities.

## Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.

## Net book value

The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any

## Net present value

A discounted cash flow methodology that uses a required rate of
return (usually a firm’s cost of capital) to determine the present value of a stream of
future cash flows, resulting in a net positive or negative value.

## net present value method

a process that uses the discounted
cash flows of a project to determine whether the
rate of return on that project is equal to, higher than, or
lower than the desired rate of return

## Net present value (NPV)

The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost.

## Net present value (NPV)

A discounted cash flow technique used for investment appraisal that calculates the present value of future cash flows and deducts the initial capital investment.

## net present value (NPV)

Equals the present value (PV) of a capital investment
minus the initial amount of capital that is invested, or the entry cost
of the investment. A positive NPV signals an attractive capital investment
opportunity; a negative NPV means that the investment is substandard.

## Net Present Value (NPV)

The present value of all future cash inflows minus the present value
of all cash outflows

## net present value (NPV)

the difference between the present values of all cash inflows and outflows for an investment project

## net present value (NPV)

Present value of cash flows minus initial investment.

## Net Present Value (NPV) Method

A method of ranking investment proposals. NPV is equal to the present value of the future returns, discounted at the marginal cost of capital, minus the present value of the cost of the investment.

## Net present value of future investments

The present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from
all of the firm's future investments.

## Net present value of growth opportunities

A model valuing a firm in which net present value of new
investment opportunities is explicitly examined.

## Net present value rule

An investment is worth making if it has a positive NPV. Projects with negative NPVs
should be rejected.

## Net Realizable Value

Selling price of an asset less expenses of bringing the asset into a saleable state and expenses of the sale.

## net realizable value approach

a method of accounting for by-products or scrap that requires that the net realizable value of these products be treated as a reduction in the cost of the primary products; primary product cost may be reduced by decreasing either
(1) cost of goods sold when the joint products are sold or
(2) the joint process cost allocated to the joint products

## net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products that uses, as the proration base, sales value at split-off minus all costs necessary
to prepare and dispose of the products; it requires
that all joint products be salable at the split-off point

## Net realizeable value

The expected revenue to be gained from the sale of an item or
service, less the costs of the sale transaction.

## Net salvage value

The after-tax net cash flow for terminating the project.

## No par value stock

Stock issued by the company that does not have an arbitrary value (par value) assigned to it.

an activity that increases the time spent on a product or service but that does not increase its worth or value to the customer

## Notional principal amount

In an interest rate swap, the predetermined dollar principal on which the
exchanged interest payments are based.

## NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.

## Original face value

The principal amount of the mortgage as of its issue date.

## Other-than-Temporary Decline in Market Value

The standard used to describe a decline in market value that is not expected to recover. The use of the other-than-temporary description as
opposed to describing a loss as permanent stresses the fact that the burden of proof is on the
investor who believes a decline is only temporary. That investor must have the intent and financial
ability to hold the investment until its market value recovers. In the absence of an ability to
demonstrate that a decline is temporary, the conclusion must be that a decline in value is other
than temporary, in which case the decline in value must be recognized in income.

## Par value

Also called the maturity value or face value, the amount that the issuer agrees to pay at the maturity date.

## PAR VALUE

An arbitrary value that a company may assign to its stock. Par value has no relationship to what the stock is selling for on the open market.

## Par value

An arbitrary value assigned by the company to each share of stock; it is used in the accounting for the sale of stock and in some jurisdictions for calculating taxes.

## Par Value

Nominal value of a security. Same as face value.

## Par value

The maturity or face value of a security or other financial
instrument.

## Par value

The stated value of a stock, which is recorded in the capital stock account.
Equity distributions cannot drop the value of stock below this minimum amount.