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Definition of Perpetuity
A constant stream of identical cash flows without end, such as a British consol.
A special case of an annuity with no set maturity. Payments are
Stream of level cash payments that never ends.
A constant stream of cash flows without end that is expected to rise indefinitely.
a generalization formula invented by Abrams that is the present value of regular but noncontiguous cash flows that have constant growth to perpetuity.
A model wherein dividends are assumed to be at a constant rate in perpetuity.
present value of a perpetuity with growth.
the maximum limit for the number of defects or errors in a process
A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the selling firm's assets.
the present value of a finite Stream of cash flows for every beginning $1 of cash flow.
cash flow provided by operating
Aggregate demand for goods and services drawn as a function of the level of national income.
hours, machine hours or volume of production
A regular periodic payment made by an insurance company to a policyholder for a specified period
A series of payments or deposits of equal size spaced evenly over
A series of payments over a period of time. The payments are usually
Equally spaced level Stream of cash flows.
A contract which provides an income for a specified period of time, such as a certain number of years or for life. An annuity is like a life insurance policy in reverse. The purchaser gives the life insurance company a lump sum of money and the life insurance company pays the purchaser a regular income, usually monthly.
Periodic payments made to an individual under the terms of the policy.
An annuity with n payments, wherein the first payment is made at time t = 0 and the last
annuity where the payments are to be made at the beginning of
a series of equal cash flows being received or paid at the beginning of a period
level Stream of cash flows starting immediately.
Present value of $1 paid for each of t periods.
Present value of an annuity of $1 per period.
Annuity in arrears
An annuity with a first payment on full period hence, rather than immediately.
The time between each payment under an annuity.
Any possession that has value in an exchange.
A resource, recorded through a transaction, that is expected to yield a benefit to a
Something that is owned; a financial claim or a piece of property that is a store of value.
Probable future economic benefit that is obtained or controlled by an entity as a result of
Anything owned by, or owed to, an individual or business which has commercial or exchange value (e.g., cash, property, etc.).
All things of value owned by an individual or organization.
Asset activity ratios
Ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.
Asset allocation decision
The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
Bond or note secured by assets of company.
A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
Methods of financing in which lenders and equity investors look principally to the
Loans granted usually by a financial institution where the asset being financed constitutes the sole security given to the lender.
Categories of assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate and foreign securities.
Extent to which a company's net assets cover a particular debt obligation, class of preferred stock, or equity position.
A bond indenture restriction that permits additional borrowing on if the ratio of assets to
The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity.
Asset for asset swap
Creditors exchange the debt of one defaulting borrower for the debt of another
Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
The weighting of assets in an investment portfolio among different asset classes (e.g. shares, bonds, property, cash, overseas investments.
Asset pricing model
A model for determining the required rate of return on an asset.
Asset pricing model
A model, such as the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), that determines the required
The amount of total risk that can be eliminated by diversification by
A firm's investing in assets that are riskier than those that the debtholders expected.
Asset substitution problem
Arises when the stockholders substitute riskier assets for the firm's existing
An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's assets so as to
The ratio of net sales to total assets.
a ratio measuring asset productivity and showing the number of sales dollars generated by each dollar of assets
asset turnover ratio
A broad-gauge ratio computed by dividing annual
A firm's productive resources.
Anything of value that a company owns.
Things that the business owns.
Items owned by the company or expenses that have been paid for but have not been used up.
A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
Elements of spending that do not vary systematically with variables such as GDP that are explained by the theory. See also exogenous expenditure.
The average time to maturity of securities held by a mutual fund. Changes in interest rates
Back To Back Annuity
This term refers to the simultaneous issue of a life annuity with a non-guaranteed period and a guaranteed life insurance policy [usually whole life or term to 100]. The face value of the life insurance would be the same amount that was used to purchase the annuity. This combination of life annuity providing the highest payout of all types of annuities, along with a guaranteed life insurance policy allowed an uninsurable person to convert his/her RRSP into the best choice of annuity and guarantee that upon his/her death, the full value of the annuity would be paid tax free through the life insurance policy to his family members. However, in the early 1990's, the Federal tax authorities put a stop to the issuing of standard life rates to rated or uninsurable applicants. Insuring a life annuity in this manner is still an excellent way to provide guaranteed tax free funds to family members but the application for the annuity and the application for the life insurance are separate transactions and today, most likely conducted through two different insurance companies so that there is no suspicion of preferential treatment given to the life insurance application.
Balance of payments
A statistical compilation formulated by a sovereign nation of all economic transactions
Balance of Payments
The difference between the demand for and supply of a country's currency on the foreign exchange market.
Balance of Payments Accounts
A statement of a country's transactions with other countries.
Any large principal payment due at maturity for a bond or loan with or without a a sinking
Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
An international bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which
a cost that is caused by a group of things
The reintroduction of a faulty product into a process production flow by
The large clearing banks that dominate deposit taking and short-term lending in the domestic
List of new issues scheduled to come to market shortly.
The tendency of stocks to perform differently at different times, including such anomalies as
an asset used to generate revenues or cost savings
A fixed asset, something that is expected to have long-term usage within
Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
A model for estimating equilibrium rates of return and values of
capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
Theory of the relationship between risk and return which states that the expected risk
Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as
Refers to investments by a business in long-term
Purchase by foreigners of our assets (capital inflows) or our purchase of foreign assets (capital outflows).
Capitalized Cost An expenditure or accrual that is reported as an asset to be amortized against
Expenditures that are accounted for as assets to be amortized
The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually
Amounts held in currency and coin (commonly referred to as petty cash) and amounts on deposit in financial institutions.
Currency, coin, and funds on deposit that are available for immediate withdrawal without
A method of accounting in which profit is calculated as the difference between income
Cash and carry
Purchase of a security and simultaneous sale of a future, with the balance being financed
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
The balance in a company’s checking account(s) plus short-term or temporary investments (sometimes called “marketable securities”), which are highly liquid.
Cash and equivalents
The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a
A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its
cash burn rate
A relatively recent term that refers to how fast a business
The actual physical commodity, as distinguished from a futures contract.
Cash conversion cycle
The length of time between a firm's purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash
cash conversion cycle
Period between firm’s payment for materials
The amount of cash expended.
A company that pays out all earnings per share to stockholders as dividends. Or, a company or
Business that produces a lot of cash but few growth prospects.
In general, the time between cash disbursement and cash collection. In net working capital
The length of time between a purchase of materials and collection of accounts receivable generated by the sale of the products made from the materials.
Cash deficiency agreement
An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash
The provision of some futures contracts that requires not delivery of underlying assets but
An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time
A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on
Payment of cash by the firm to its shareholders.
A short-term security that is sufficiently liquid that it may be considered the financial
Temporary investments of currently excess cash in short-term, high-quality
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