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Definition of Pac-Man

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Pac-Man

strategy Takeover defense strategy in which the prospective acquiree retaliates against the
acquirer's tender offer by launching its own tender offer for the other firm.



Related Terms:

Abusive Earnings Management

The use of various forms of gimmickry to distort a company's true financial performance in order to achieve a desired result.


Abusive Earnings Management

A characterization used by the Securities and Exchange
Commission to designate earnings management that results in an intentional and material misrepresentation
of results.


activity-based management (ABM)

a discipline that focuses on the activities incurred during the production/performance process as the way to improve the value received
by a customer and the resulting profit achieved by providing
this value


Aggregate Demand

Total quantity of goods and services demanded.


Aggregate Demand Curve

Combinations of the price level and income for which the goods and services market is in equilibrium, or for which both the goods and services market and the money market are in equilibrium.



Asset/liability management

Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
institution to accomplish the two goals of a financial institution:
1) to earn an adequate return on funds invested, and
2) to maintain a comfortable surplus of assets beyond liabilities.


BARRA's performance analysis (PERFAN)

A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in
Berkeley, Calif. It is commonly used by institutional investors applying performance attribution analysis to
evaluate their money managers' performances.


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Bottom-up equity management style

A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic
and market cycles, focusing instead on the analysis of individual stocks.


budget manual

a detailed set of documents that provides information
and guidelines about the budgetary process


Capacity

The maximum volume of products or services that can be produced given limitations of space,
people, equipment or financial resources.


capacity

a measure of production volume or some other activity base


Capacity utilization

The proportion of capacity that is able to be utilized to fulfil customer demand for products
or services.


Cash management bill

Very short maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash
balances are down and it needs money for a few days.


Certified Management Accountant (CMA)

a professional designation in the area of management accounting that
recognizes the successful completion of an examination,
acceptable work experience, and continuing education requirements


Claimant

A party to an explicit or implicit contract.


Claimant

Person or party making request for payment of benefits under the terms of an insurance policy.


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Comanger

A bank that ranks just below a lead manager in a syndicated Eurocredit or international bond
issue. Comanagers may assist the lead manger bank in the pricing and issue of the instrument.


Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee

The Association for Investment management and Research (AIMR)'s Performance Presentation Standards Implementation
Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise and update the AIMR Performance
Presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS(TM)) for portfolio performance presentations.



computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

the use of computers to control production processes through numerically
controlled (NC) machines, robots, and automated assembly systems


computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

the integration of two or more flexible manufacturing systems through the use of a host computer and an information networking system


contract manufacturer

an external party that has been granted an outsourcing contract to produce a part or component for an entity


Corporate financial management

The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.


cost management system (CMS)

a set of formal methods
developed for planning and controlling an organization’s
cost-generating activities relative to its goals and objectives
cost object anything to which costs attach or are related


cost of goods manufactured (CGM)

the total cost of the
goods completed and transferred to Finished Goods Inventory
during the period


Cost of manufacture

The cost of goods manufactured for subsequent sale.


Debt capacity

Ability to borrow. The amount a firm can borrow up to the point where the firm value no
longer increases.


Debt Capacity

An assessment of ability and willingness to repay a loan from anticipated future cash flow or other sources.


Demand

An amount desired, in the sense that people are willing and able to pay to obtain this amount. Always associated with a given price.



Demand Deposit

A bank deposit that can be withdrawn on demand, such as a deposit in a checking account.


Demand deposits

Checking accounts that pay no interest and can be withdrawn upon demand.


Demand line of credit

A bank line of credit that enables a customer to borrow on a daily or on-demand basis.


Demand Loan

A loan which must be repaid in full on demand.


Demand Management Policy

Fiscal or monetary policy designed to influence aggregate demand for goods and services.


Demand master notes

Short-term securities that are repayable immediately upon the holder's demand.


Demand-Pull Inflation

Inflation whose initial cause is excess demand rather than cost increases. See also cost-push inflation.


Demand shock

An event that affects the demand for goods in services in the economy.


design for manufacturability (DFM)

a process that is part of the project management of a new product; concerned with finding optimal solutions to minimizing product failures
and other adversities in the delivery of a new product
to customers


Earnings Management

The active manipulation of earnings toward a predetermined target.
That target may be one set by management, a forecast made by analysts, or an amount that is consistent
with a smoother, more sustainable earnings stream. Often, although not always, earnings
management entails taking steps to reduce and “store” profits during good years for use during
slower years. This more limited form of earnings management is known as income smoothing.


Excess Capacity

Unused production capacity.


Excess Demand

A situation in which demand exceeds supply.


expected capacity

a short-run concept that represents the
anticipated level of capacity to be used by a firm in the
upcoming period, based on projected product demand


flexible manufacturing system (FMS)

a production system in which a single factory manufactures numerous variations
of products through the use of computer-controlled
robots
focused factory arrangement
an arrangement in which a
vendor (which may be an external party or an internal corporate
division) agrees to provide a limited number of
products according to specifications or to perform a limited
number of unique services to a company that is typically
operating on a just-in-time system


Group rotation manager

A top-down manager who infers the phases of the business cycle and allocates
assets accordingly.


Growth manager

A money manager who seeks to buy stocks that are typically selling at relatively high P/E
ratios due to high earnings growth, with the expectation of continued high or higher earnings growth.


Hedging demands

Demands for securities to hedge particular sources of consumption risk, beyond the usual
mean-variance diversification motivation.


Human capital

The unique capabilities and expertise of individuals.


ideal capacity

see theoretical capacity


Institute of Management Accountants (IMA)

an organization composed of individuals interested in the field of management accounting; it coordinates the Certified management
Accountant program through its affiliate organization
(the Institute of Certified management Accountants)


Investment manager

Also called a portfolio manager and money manager, the individual who manages a
portfolio of investments.


Just-in-time manufacturing

The term for several manufacturing innovations that
result in a “pull” method of production, in which each manufacturing workstation
creates just enough product for the immediate needs of the next workstation in the
production process.


just-in-time manufacturing system

a production system that attempts to acquire components and produce inventory only as needed, to minimize product defects, and to
reduce lead/setup times for acquisition and production


Lead manager

The commercial or investment bank with the primary responsibility for organizing syndicated
bank credit or bond issue. The lead manager recruits additional lending or underwriting banks, negotiates
terms of the issue with the issuer, and assesses market conditions.


Managed float

Also known as "dirty" float, this is a system of floating exchange rates with central bank
intervention to reduce currency fluctuations.


Management

management refers to the individuals in an entity that have the authority and the responsibility to manage the entity. The positions of these individuals, and their titles, vary from one entity to another and, to some extent, from one country to another depending on the local laws and customs. Thus, when the context requires it, the term includes the board of directors or committees of the board which are designated to oversee certain matters (e.g., audit committee).


Management accounting

The production of financial and non-financial information used in planning for the future; making decisions about products, services, prices and what costs to incur; and ensuring that plans are implemented and achieved.


management accounting

a discipline that includes almost
all manipulations of financial information for use by managers
in performing their organizational functions and in
assuring the proper use and handling of an entity’s resources;
it includes the discipline of cost accounting


Management Accounting Guidelines (MAGs)

pronouncements of the Society of management Accountants of
Canada that advocate appropriate practices for specific
management accounting situations


Management buyout (MBO)

Leveraged buyout whereby the acquiring group is led by the firm's management.


management buyout (MBO)

Acquisition of the firm by its own management in a leveraged buyout.


Management/closely held shares

Percentage of shares held by persons closely related to a company, as
defined by the Securities and exchange commission. Part of these percentages often is included in
Institutional Holdings -- making the combined total of these percentages over 100. There is overlap as
institutions sometimes acquire enough stock to be considered by the SEC to be closely allied to the company.


management control

This is difficult to define in a few words—indeed, an
entire chapter is devoted to the topic (Chapter 17). The essence of management
control is “keeping a close watch on everything.” Anything can
go wrong and get out of control. management control can be thought of
as the follow-through on decisions to ensure that the actual outcomes
happen according to purposes and goals of the management decisions
that set things in motion. managers depend on feedback control reports
that contain very detailed information. The level of detail and range of
information in these control reports is very different from the summarylevel
information reported in external income statements.


management control system (MCS)

an information system that helps managers gather information about actual organizational occurrences, make comparisons against plans,
effect changes when they are necessary, and communicate
among appropriate parties; it should serve to guide organizations
in designing and implementing strategies so that
organizational goals and objectives are achieved


management expense ratio (MER)

The total expenses expressed as an annualized percentage of daily average net assets. MER does not include brokerage fees and commissions, which are also payable by the Fund.


Management fee

An investment advisory fee charged by the financial advisor to a fund based on the fund's
average assets, but sometimes determined on a sliding scale that declines as the dollar amount of the fund increases.


management fee

The fee paid to the fund’s manager for supervising the administration of the fund.


management information system (MIS)

a structure of interrelated elements that collects, organizes, and communicates
data to managers so they may plan, control, evaluate
performance, and make decisions; the emphasis of the
MIS is on internal demands for information rather than external
demands; some or all of the MIS may be computerized
for ease of access to information, reliability of input
and processing, and ability to simulate outcomes of
alternative situations


management style

the preference of a manager in how he/she interacts with other stakeholders in the organization;
it influences the way the firm engages in transactions and
is manifested in managerial decisions, interpersonal and
interorganizational relationships, and resource allocations


Managerial decisions

Decisions concerning the operation of the firm, such as the choice of firm size, firm
growth rates, and employee compensation.


Mandatory redemption schedule

Schedule according to which sinking fund payments must be made.


Mangement's discussion

A report from management to the shareholders that accompanies the firm's
financial statements in the annual report. This report explains the period's financial results and enables
management to discuss other ideas that may not be apparent in the financial statements in the annual report.


Manufactured housing securities (MHSs)

Loans on manufactured homes - that is, factory-built or
prefabricated housing, including mobile homes.


manufacturer

a company engaged in a high degree of conversion
that results in a tangible output


manufacturing cell

a linear or U-shaped production grouping of workers or machines


manufacturing cycle efficiency (MCE)

a ratio resulting from dividing the actual production time by total lead time;
reflects the proportion of lead time that is value-added


Manufacturing resource planning

An integrated, computerized system for planning
all manufacturing resources.


manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)

a fully integrated materials requirement planning system that involves
top management and provides a basis for both strategic
and tactical planning


Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)

An expansion of the material requirements planning concept, with additional computer-based capabilities in the areas of
direct labor and machine capacity planning.


Market impact costs

Also called price impact costs, the result of a bid/ask spread and a dealer's price concession.


Money management

Related: Investment management.


Money manager

Related: Investment manager.


Money market demand account

An account that pays interest based on short-term interest rates.


Nondiversifiability of human capital

The difficulty of diversifying one's human capital (the unique
capabilities and expertise of individuals) and employment effort.


normal capacity

the long-run (5–10 years) average production
or service volume of a firm; it takes into consideration
cyclical and seasonal fluctuations


One man picture

The picture quoted by a broker is said to be a one-man picture if both the bid and offered
prices come from the same source.


open-book management

a philosophy about increasing a firm’s performance by involving all workers and by ensuring
that all workers have access to operational and financial
information necessary to achieve performance improvements


Operational Earnings Management

management actions taken in the effort to create stable
financial performance by acceptable, voluntary business decisions. An example: a special discount
promotion to increase flagging sales near the end of a quarter when targets are not being met.


Packing slip

A document attached to a customer shipment, describing the contents
of the items shipped, as well as their part number and quantity.


Passive investment management

Buying a well-diversified portfolio to represent a broad-based market
index without attempting to search out mispriced securities.


Performance attribution analysis

The decomposition of a money manager's performance results to explain
the reasons why those results were achieved. This analysis seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What
were the major sources of added value? (2) Was short-term factor timing statistically significant? (3) Was
market timing statistically significant? And (4), Was security selection statistically significant?


Performance evaluation

The evaluation of a manager's performance which involves, first, determining
whether the money manager added value by outperforming the established benchmark (performance
measurement) and, second, determining how the money manager achieved the calculated return (performance
attribution analysis).


performance evaluation

the process of determining the degree
of success in accomplishing a task; it equates to both
effectiveness and efficiency


performance management system

a system reflecting the entire package of decisions regarding performance measurement and evaluation


Performance measurement

The calculation of the return realized by a money manager over some time interval.


Performance shares

Shares of stock given to managers on the basis of performance as measured by earnings
per share and similar criteria. A control device used by shareholders to tie management to the self-interest of
shareholders.


Permanent accounts

The accounts found on the Balance Sheet; these account balances are carried forward for the lifetime of the company.


Permanent Capital

Financing needed for the normal operation of a business, that is long term capital and working capital.


Permanent Income Hypothesis

Theory that individuals base current consumption spending on their perceived long-run average income rather than their current income.


Portfolio management

Related: Investment management


Portfolio manager

Related: Investment manager



 

 

 

 

 

 

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