Financial Terms
Original issue discount debt (OID debt)

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Definition of Original issue discount debt (OID debt)

Original Issue Discount Debt (OID Debt) Image 1

Original issue discount debt (OID debt)

debt that is initially offered at a price below par.

Related Terms:

Accretion (of a discount)

In portfolio accounting, a straight-line accumulation of capital gains on discount
bond in anticipation of receipt of par at maturity.

ad hoc discount

a price concession made under competitive pressure (real or imagined) that does not relate to quantity purchased

ADF (annuity discount factor)

the present value of a finite stream of cash flows for every beginning $1 of cash flow.

Allowance for bad debts

An offset to the accounts receivable balance, against which
bad debts are charged. The presence of this allowance allows one to avoid severe
changes in the period-to-period bad debt expense by expensing a steady amount to
the allowance account in every period, rather than writing off large bad debts to
expense on an infrequent basis.

Avoidable costs

Costs that are identifiable with and able to be influenced by decisions made at the business
unit (e.g. division) level.

Bad debt

An account receivable that cannot be collected.

Bad debts

The amount of accounts receivable that is not expected to be collected.

Original Issue Discount Debt (OID Debt) Image 2

bad debts

Refers to accounts receivable from credit sales to customers
that a business will not be able to collect (or not collect in full). In hindsight,
the business shouldn’t have extended credit to these particular
customers. Since these amounts owed to the business will not be collected,
they are written off. The accounts receivable asset account is
decreased by the estimated amount of uncollectible receivables, and the
bad debts expense account is increased this amount. These write-offs
can be done by the direct write-off method, which means that no
expense is recorded until specific accounts receivable are identified as
uncollectible. Or the allowance method can be used, which is based on
an estimated percent of bad debts from credit sales during the period.
Under this method, a contra asset account is created (called allowance
for bad debts) and the balance of this account is deducted from the
accounts receivable asset account.

Bank discount basis

A convention used for quoting bids and offers for treasury bills in terms of annualized
yield , based on a 360-day year.

Bellwether issues

Related:Benchmark issues.

Benchmark issues

Also called on-the-run or current coupon issues or bellwether issues. In the secondary
market, it's the most recently auctioned Treasury issues for each maturity.

Cash discount

An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time
period, such as ten days.

Cheapest to deliver issue

The acceptable Treasury security with the highest implied repo rate; the rate that a
seller of a futures contract can earn by buying an issue and then delivering it at the settlement date.

constant-growth dividend discount model

Version of the dividend discount model in which dividends grow at a constant rate.

Continuous Discounting

The process of calculating the present value of a stream of future
cash flows by discounting over a continuous period of time

cost avoidance

the practice of finding acceptable alternatives
to high-cost items and/or not spending money for
unnecessary goods or services

Cost of Debt

The cost of debt (bonds, loans, etc.) that a company is charged for
borrowing funds. A component of the cost of capital.

Current-coupon issues

Related: Benchmark issues

Current issue

In Treasury securities, the most recently auctioned issue. Trading is more active in current
issues than in off-the-run issues.


Money borrowed.


Borrowings from financiers.


Funds owed to another entity.

Debt capacity

Ability to borrow. The amount a firm can borrow up to the point where the firm value no
longer increases.

Debt Capacity

An assessment of ability and willingness to repay a loan from anticipated future cash flow or other sources.

Debt (Credit Insurance)

Money, goods or services that someone is obligated to pay someone else in accordance with an expressed or implied agreement. debt may or may not be secured.

Debt displacement

The amount of borrowing that leasing displaces. Firms that do a lot of leasing will be
forced to cut back on borrowing.

Debt/equity ratio

Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided
by shareholders. Determined by dividing long-term debt by common stockholder equity.

Debt/Equity Ratio

A comparison of debt to equity in a company's capital structure.

Debt Financing

Raising loan capital through the creation of debt by issuing a form of paper evidencing amounts owed and payable on specified dates or on demand.

Debt instrument

An asset requiring fixed dollar payments, such as a government or corporate bond.

Debt Instrument

Any financial asset corresponding to a debt, such as a bond or a treasury bill.

Debt leverage

The amplification of the return earned on equity when an investment or firm is financed
partially with borrowed money.

Debt limitation

A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to incur additional indebtedness.

Debt market

The market for trading debt instruments.

Debt ratio

Total debt divided by total assets.

Debt Ratio

The percentage of debt that is used in the total capitalization of a
company. It is calculated by dividing the total book value of the
debt by the book value of all assets.

Debt relief

Reducing the principal and/or interest payments on LDC loans.

Debt securities

IOUs created through loan-type transactions - commercial paper, bank CDs, bills, bonds, and
other instruments.

Debt Security

A security representing a debt relationship with an enterprise, including a government
security, municipal security, corporate bond, convertible debt issue, and commercial

Debt service

Interest payment plus repayments of principal to creditors, that is, retirement of debt.

Debt-service coverage ratio

Earnings before interest and income taxes plus one-third rental charges, divided
by interest expense plus one-third rental charges plus the quantity of principal repayments divided by one
minus the tax rate.

Debt service parity approach

An analysis wherein the alternatives under consideration will provide the firm
with the exact same schedule of after-tax debt payments (including both interest and principal).

Debt swap

A set of transactions (also called a debt-equity swap) in which a firm buys a country's dollar bank
debt at a discount and swaps this debt with the central bank for local currency that it can use to acquire local

debt-to-equity ratio

A widely used financial statement ratio to assess the
overall debt load of a business and its capital structure, it equals total liabilities
divided by total owners’ equity. Both numbers for this ratio are
taken from a business’s latest balance sheet. There is no standard, or
generally agreed on, maximum ratio, such as 1:1 or 2:1. Every industry
is different in this regard. Some businesses, such as financial institutions,
have very high debt-to-equity ratios. In contrast, many businesses
use very little debt relative to their owners’ equity.

Debtor in possession

A firm that is continuing to operate under Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.

Debtor-in-possession financing

New debt obtained by a firm during the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.


Sales to customers who have bought goods or services on credit but who have not yet paid their debt.

Deep-discount bond

A bond issued with a very low coupon or no coupon and selling at a price far below par
value. When the bond has no coupon, it's called a zero coupon bond.


Referring to the selling price of a bond, a price below its par value. Related: premium.


The percentage amount at which bonds sell below their par value. Also the percentage amount at which a currency sells on the forward market below its current rate on the spot market.

Discount bond

debt sold for less than its principal value. If a discount bond pays no interest, it is called a
zero coupon bond.

Discount Bond

A bond with no coupons, priced below its face value; the return on this bond comes from the difference between its face value and its current price.

Discount curve

The curve of discount rates vs. maturity dates for bonds.

Discount factor

Present value of $1 received at a stated future date.

discount factor

Present value of a $1 future payment.

Discount period

The period during which a customer can deduct the discount from the net amount of the bill
when making payment.

discount rate

the rate of return on investment that would be required by a prudent investor to invest in an asset with a specific level risk. Also, a rate of return used to convert a monetary sum, payable or receivable in the future, into present value.

Discount rate

The interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges a bank to borrow funds when a bank is
temporarily short of funds. Collateral is necessary to borrow, and such borrowing is quite limited because the
Fed views it as a privilege to be used to meet short-term liquidity needs, and not a device to increase earnings.

Discount Rate

The rate of interest used to calculate the present value of a stream
of future cash flows

discount rate

the rate of return used to discount future cash
flows to their present value amounts; it should equal or
exceed an organization’s weighted average cost of capital

discount rate

Interest rate used to compute present values of future cash flows.

Discount Rate

The interest rate at which the Fed is prepared to loan reserves to commercial banks.

Discount Rate

A rate of return used to convert a monetary sum, payable or receivable in the future, into present value.

Discount securities

Non-interest-bearing money market instruments that are issued at a discount and
redeemed at maturity for full face value, e.g. U.S. Treasury bills.

Discount window

Facility provided by the Fed enabling member banks to borrow reserves against collateral
in the form of governments or other acceptable paper.

Discount Window

The Federal Reserve facility at which reserves are loaned to banks at the discount rate.

Discounted basis

Selling something on a discounted basis is selling below what its value will be at maturity,
so that the difference makes up all or part of the interest.

Discounted cash flow

A technique that determines the present value of future cash
flows by applying a rate to each periodic cash flow that is derived from the cost of
capital. Multiplying this discount by each future cash flow results in an amount that
is the present value of all the future cash flows.

Discounted Cash Flow

Techniques for establishing the relative worth of a future investment by discounting (at a required rate of return) the expected net cash flows from the project.

Discounted cash flow (DCF)

Future cash flows multiplied by discount factors to obtain present values.

Discounted cash flow (DCF)

A method of investment appraisal that discounts future cash flows to present value using a discount rate, which is the risk-adjusted cost of capital.

discounted cash flow (DCF)

Refers to a capital investment analysis technique
that discounts, or scales down, the future cash returns from an
investment based on the cost-of-capital rate for the business. In essence,
each future return is downsized to take into account the cost of capital
from the start of the investment until the future point in time when the
return is received. Present value (PV) is the amount resulting from discounting
the future returns. Present value is subtracted from the entry
cost of the investment to determine net present value (NPV). The net
present value is positive if the present value is more than the entry cost,
which signals that the investment would earn more than the cost-ofcapital
rate. If the entry cost is more than the present value, the net
present value is negative, which means that the investment would earn
less than the business’s cost-of-capital rate.

Discounted dividend model (DDM)

A formula to estimate the intrinsic value of a firm by figuring the
present value of all expected future dividends.

Discounted payback period rule

An investment decision rule in which the cash flows are discounted at an
interest rate and the payback rule is applied on these discounted cash flows.


Calculating the present value of a future amount. The process is opposite to compounding.


The process of calculating the present value of a stream of future
cash flows


the process of reducing future cash flows to present value amounts


Calculating the present value of a future payment.


The process of finding the present value of a series of future cash flows. discounting is the reverse of compounding.

Discounting of Accounts Receivable

Short-term financing in which accounts receivable are used as collateral to secure a loan. The lender does not buy the accounts receivable but simply uses them as collateral for the loan. Also called pledging of accounts receivable.

dividend discount model

Computation of today’s stock price which states that share value equals the present value of all expected future dividends.

Dividend discount model (DDM)

A model for valuing the common stock of a company, based on the
present value of the expected cash flows.

DLOC (discount for lack of control)

an amount or percentage deducted from a pro rata share of the value of 100% of an equity interest in a business, to reflect the absence of some or all of the powers of control.

DLOM (discount for lack of marketability)

an amount or percentage deducted from an equity interest to reflect lack of marketability.

Documented discount notes

Commercial paper backed by normal bank lines plus a letter of credit from a
bank stating that it will pay off the paper at maturity if the borrower does not. Such paper is also referred to as
LOC (letter of credit) paper.

Dual-currency issues

Eurobonds that pay coupon interest in one currency but pay the principal in a different

Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF)

A special committee of the Financial Accounting Standards Board established to reach consensus of how to account for new and unusual financial transactions that have the potential for creating differing financial reporting practices.

Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF)

A separate committee within the Financial Accounting Standards Board composed of 13 members representing CPA firms and preparers of financial statements
whose purpose is to reach a consensus on how to account for new and unusual financial transactions
that have the potential for creating differing financial reporting practices.

Euroequity issues

Securities sold in the Euromarket. That is, securities initially sold to investors
simultaneously in several national markets by an international syndicate. Euromarket.
Related: external market

Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.

Forward discount

A currency trades at a forward discount when its forward price is lower than its spot price.

fractional interest discount

the combined discounts for lack of control and marketability. g the constant growth rate in cash flows or net income used in the ADF, Gordon model, or present value factor.

Funded debt

debt maturing after more than one year.

funded debt

debt with more than 1 year remaining to maturity.

Interest rate on debt

The firm's cost of debt capital.

Inventory issue

A transaction used to record the reduction in inventory from a location,
because of its release for processing or transfer to another location.


A particular financial asset.


When an item is approved and released for sale, or when a policy or sales contract is accepted.

Issue Age

Age of an insured as at the policy issue date, using "age nearest" next birthday formula.







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