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Definition of Opening, the

Opening, The Image 1

Opening, the

The period at the beginning of the trading session officially designated by the exchange during
which all transactions are considered made "at the opening". Related: Close, the



Related Terms:

Accounting period

The period of time for which financial statements are produced – see also financial year.


acid test ratio (also called the quick ratio)

The sum of cash, accounts receivable, and short-term marketable
investments (if any) is divided by
total current liabilities to compute this ratio. Suppose that the short-term
creditors were to pounce on a business and not agree to roll over the
debts owed to them by the business. In this rather extreme scenario, the
acid test ratio reveals whether its cash and near-cash assets are enough
to pay its short-term current liabilities. This ratio is an extreme test that
is not likely to be imposed on a business unless it is in financial straits.
This ratio is quite relevant when a business is in a liquidation situation
or bankruptcy proceedings.


All equity rate

The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project and abstracts from the
effects of financing.


All-in cost

Total costs, explicit and implicit.


All or none

Requirement that none of an order be executed unless all of it can be executed at the specified price.



All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.


allocate

assign based on the use of a cost driver, a cost predictor,
or an arbitrary method


Opening, The Image 1

allocation

the systematic assignment of an amount to a recipient
set of categories annuity a series of equal cash flows (either positive or negative) per period


Allocation

The process of storing costs in one account and shifting them to other
accounts, based on some relevant measure of activity.


Allocation base A measure of activity or volume such as labour

hours, machine hours or volume of production
used to apportion overheads to products and
services.


Allowance for bad debts

An offset to the accounts receivable balance, against which
bad debts are charged. The presence of this allowance allows one to avoid severe
changes in the period-to-period bad debt expense by expensing a steady amount to
the allowance account in every period, rather than writing off large bad debts to
expense on an infrequent basis.


Allowance for doubtful accounts

A contra account related to accounts receivable that represents the amounts that the company expects will not be collected.


Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

An estimate of the uncollectible portion of accounts receivable
that is subtracted from the gross amount of accounts receivable to arrive at the estimated collectible
amount.


Allowance method

A method of adjusting accounts receivable to the amount that is expected to be collected based on company experience.


American Stock Exchange (AMEX)

The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.


Annualized holding period return

The annual rate of return that when compounded t times, would have
given the same t-period holding return as actually occurred from period 1 to period t.


Opening, The Image 2

Annuity Period

The time between each payment under an annuity.


approximated net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products using a
simulated net realizable value at the split-off point; approximated
value is computed as final sales price minus
incremental separate costs



Asset allocation decision

The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
major classes of assets in which it may invest.


Average Amortization Period

The average useful life of a company's collective amortizable asset base.


Average Collection Period

Average number of days necessary to receive cash for the sale of
a company's products. It is calculated by dividing the value of the
accounts receivable by the average daily sales for the period.


Average collection period, or days' receivables

The ratio of accounts receivables to sales, or the total
amount of credit extended per dollar of daily sales (average AR/sales * 365).


Balloon maturity

Any large principal payment due at maturity for a bond or loan with or without a a sinking
fund requirement.


Bill of exchange

General term for a document demanding payment.


Borrower fallout

In the mortgage pipeline, the risk that prospective borrowers of loans committed to be
Closed will elect to withdraw from the contract.


Buy on close

To buy at the end of the trading session at a price within the closing range.


Buy on opening

To buy at the beginning of a trading session at a price within the opening range.


Opening, The Image 3

Call

An option that gives the right to buy the underlying futures contract.



Call

a. An option to buy a certain quantity of a stock or commodity for a
specified price within a specified time. See Put.
b. A demand to submit bonds to the issuer for redemption before the maturity date.
c. A demand for payment of a debt.
d. A demand for payment due on stock bought on margin.


Call an option

To exercise a call option.


Call date

A date before maturity, specified at issuance, when the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond
for a specified call price.


Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.


Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
contract.
Call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.


Call Option

A contract that gives the holder the right to buy an asset for a
specified price on or before a given expiration (maturity) date


call option

Right to buy an asset at a specified exercise price on or before the exercise date.


Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.


Call price

The price for which a bond can be repaid before maturity under a call provision.


Call protection

A feature of some callable bonds that establishes an initial period when the bonds may not be
called.


Call provision

An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of the issue prior
to maturity.


Call risk

The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision.


Call swaption

A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The
writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating rate payer.


Callable

A financial security such as a bond with a call option attached to it, i.e., the issuer has the right to
call the security.


Callable bond

A bond that allows the issuer to buy back the bond at a
predetermined price at specified future dates. The bond contains an embedded
call option; i.e., the holder has sold a call option to the issuer. See Puttable
bond.


callable bond

Bond that may be repurchased by the issuer before maturity at specified call price.


Capital allocation

decision allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.


Capital Consumption Allowance

See depreciation.


Capital Cost Allowance (CCA)

The annual depreciation expense allowed by the Canadian Income Tax Act.


Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)

A not-for-profit corporation owned by its members. Its primary
functions are to provide a location for trading futures and options, collect and disseminate market information,
maintain a clearing mechanism and enforce trading rules.


Chinese wall

Communication barrier between financiers (investment bankers) and traders. This barrier is
erected to prevent the sharing of inside information that bankers are likely to have.


Close, the

The period at the end of the trading session. Sometimes used to refer to closing price. Related:
opening, the.


Closed Economy

An economy in which imports and exports are very small relative to GDP and so are ignored in macroeconomic analysis. Contrast with open economy.


Closed-end fund

An investment company that sells shares like any other corporation and usually does not
redeem its shares. A publicly traded fund sold on stock exchanges or over the counter that may trade above or
below its net asset value. Related: Open-end fund.


Closed-end mortgage

Mortgage against which no additional debt may be issued.


Commodities Exchange Center (CEC)

The location of five New York futures exchanges: Commodity
exchange, Inc. (COMEX), the New York Mercantile exchange (NYMEX), the New York Cotton exchange,
the Coffee, Sugar and Cocoa exchange (CSC), and the New York futures exchange (NYFE). common size
statement A statement in which all items are expressed as a percentage of a base figure, useful for purposes of
analyzing trends and the changing relationship between financial statement items. For example, all items in
each year's income statement could be presented as a percentage of net sales.


Compounding period

The length of the time period (for example, a quarter in the case of quarterly
compounding) that elapses before interest compounds.


compounding period

the time between each interest computation


Convertible exchangeable preferred stock

Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred
stock.


cost allocation

the assignment, using some reasonable basis,
of any indirect cost to one or more cost objects


Covered call

A short call option position in which the writer owns the number of shares of the underlying
stock represented by the option contracts. Covered calls generally limit the risk the writer takes because the
stock does not have to be bought at the market price, if the holder of that option decides to exercise it.


Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.


Credit period

The length of time for which the customer is granted credit.


Critical Growth Periods

Times in a company's history when growth is essential and without which survival of the business might be in jeopardy.


Day trading

Refers to establishing and liquidating the same position or positions within one day's trading.


Debtor in possession

A firm that is continuing to operate under Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.


Debtor-in-possession financing

New debt obtained by a firm during the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.


Deferred call

A provision that prohibits the company from calling the bond before a certain date. during this
period the bond is said to be call protected.


Depreciation Allowances

Tax deductions that businesses can claim when they spend money on investment goods.


Discount period

The period during which a customer can deduct the discount from the net amount of the bill
when making payment.


Discounted payback period rule

An investment decision rule in which the cash flows are discounted at an
interest rate and the payback rule is applied on these discounted cash flows.


Dynamic asset allocation

An asset allocation strategy in which the asset mix is mechanistically shifted in
response to -changing market conditions, as in a portfolio insurance strategy, for example.


economically reworked

when the incremental revenue from the sale of reworked defective units is greater than
the incremental cost of the rework


Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.


Effective Exchange Rate

The weighted average of several exchange rates, where the weights are determined by the extent of our trade done with each country.


Equation of Exchange

The quantity theory equation Mv = PQ.


Evaluation period

The time interval over which a money manager's performance is evaluated.


Exchange

The marketplace in which shares, options and futures on stocks, bonds, commodities and indices
are traded. Principal US stock exchanges are: New York Stock exchange (NYSE), American Stock exchange
(AMEX) and the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASDAQ)


Exchange controls

Governmental restrictions on the purchase of foreign currencies by domestic citizens or
on the purchase of the local domestic currency by foreigners.


Exchange of assets

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its assets in exchange for cash or stock.


Exchange of stock

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its stock in exchange for cash or shares.


Exchange offer

An offer by the firm to give one security, such as a bond or preferred stock, in exchange for
another security, such as shares of common stock.


Exchange rate

The price of one country's currency expressed in another country's currency.


exchange rate

Amount of one currency needed to purchase one unit of another.


Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM)

The methodology by which members of the EMS maintain their
currency exchange rates within an agreed upon range with respect to other member countries.


Exchange Rate, Nominal

The price of one currency in terms of another, in this book defined as number of units of foreign currency per dollar.


Exchange Rate, Real

The nominal exchange rate corrected for price level differences.


Exchange rate risk

Also called currency risk, the risk of an investment's value changing because of currency
exchange rates.


Exchange risk

The variability of a firm's value that results from unexpected exchange rate changes or the
extent to which the present value of a firm is expected to change as a result of a given currency's appreciation
or depreciation.


Exchangeable Security

Security that grants the security holder the right to exchange the security for the
common stock of a firm other than the issuer of the security.


expectations theory of exchange rates

Theory that expected spot exchange rate equals the forward rate.


Extended Amortization Period

An amortization period that continues beyond a long-lived asset's economic useful life.


Extended Amortization Periods

Amortizing capitalized expenditures over estimated useful lives that are unduly optimistic.


Fallacy of Composition

The incorrect conclusion that something that is true for an individual is necessarily true for the economy as a whole.


Fallout risk

A type of mortgage pipeline risk that is generally created when the terms of the loan to be
originated are set at the same time as the sale terms are set. The risk is that either of the two parties, borrower
or investor, fails to Close and the loan "falls out" of the pipeline.


Federally related institutions

Arms of the federal government that are exempt from SEC registration and
whose securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government (with the exception of the
Tennessee Valley Authority).


First-call

With CMOs, the start of the cash flow cycle for the cash flow window.


Fixed-exchange rate

A country's decision to tie the value of its currency to another country's currency, gold
(or another commodity), or a basket of currencies.


Fixed Exchange Rate

An exchange rate held constant by a government promise to buy or sell dollars at the fixed rate on the foreign exchange market.


Flexible Exchange Rate

An exchange rate whose value is determined by the forces of supply and demand on the foreign exchange market.


Floating exchange rate

A country's decision to allow its currency value to freely change. The currency is not
constrained by central bank intervention and does not have to maintain its relationship with another currency
in a narrow band. The currency value is determined by trading in the foreign exchange market.


Floating Exchange Rate

See flexible exchange rate.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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