Financial Terms
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Main Page

Alphabetical
Index

SEARCH


Information about financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.

 


Main Page: tax advisor, finance, financial, investment, business, credit, money, financial advisor,

Definition of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Image 1

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

an agreement among Canada, Mexico, and the United States establishing the north american free trade Zone, with a resulting reduction in trade barriers



Related Terms:

American Depositary Receipts (ADRs)

Certificates issued by a U.S. depositary bank, representing foreign
shares held by the bank, usually by a branch or correspondent in the country of issue. One ADR may
represent a portion of a foreign share, one share or a bundle of shares of a foreign corporation. If the ADR's
are "sponsored," the corporation provides financial information and other assistance to the bank and may
subsidize the administration of the ADRs. "Unsponsored" ADRs do not receive such assistance. ADRs carry
the same currency, political and economic risks as the underlying foreign share; the prices of the two, adjusted for the SDR/ordinary ratio, are kept essentially identical by arbitrage. american depositary shares(ADSs) are
a similar form of certification.


American option

An option that may be exercised at any time up to and including the expiration date.
Related: European option


American option

An option that can be exercised any time until its
expiration date. Contrast with European option.


American shares

Securities certificates issued in the U.S. by a transfer agent acting on behalf of the foreign
issuer. The certificates represent claims to foreign equities.


American Stock Exchange (AMEX)

The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.



American-style option

An option contract that can be exercised at any time between the date of purchase and
the expiration date. Most exchange-traded options are american style.


Arbitrage-free option-pricing models

Yield curve option-pricing models.


North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Image 2

Balance of Merchandise Trade

The difference between exports and imports of goods.


Balance of trade

Net flow of goods (exports minus imports) between countries.


Balance of Trade

See balance of merchandise trade.


Basket trades

Related: Program trades.


Block trade

A large trading order, defined on the New York Stock Exchange as an order that consists of
10,000 shares of a given stock or a total market value of $200,000 or more.


Bond agreement

A contract for privately placed debt.


Bretton Woods Agreement

An agreement signed by the original United Nations members in 1944 that
established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the post-World War II international monetary system
of fixed exchange rates.


Buy/Sell Agreement

This is an agreement entered into by the owners of a business to define the conditions under which the interests of each shareholder will be bought and sold. The agreement sets the value of each shareholders interest and stipulates what happens when one of the owners wishes to dispose of his/her interest during his/her lifetime as well as disposal of interest upon death or disability. Life insurance, critical illness coverage and disability insurance are major considerations to help fund this type of agreement.


Cash deficiency agreement

An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency the project may experience.


Concession agreement

An understanding between a company and the host government that specifies the
rules under which the company can operate locally.


Conditional Sale Agreement

An agreement entered into between a conditional buyer and a conditional seller setting out the terms under which goods change hands.



Confidentiality Agreement

A legal document whereby the one party, usually the prospective investor, pledges to keep strictly confidential, and return on request, any and all information provided by the entrepreneur seeking funding.


Counter trade

The exchange of goods for other goods rather than for cash; barter.


Double-tax agreement

agreement between two countries that taxes paid abroad can be offset against
domestic taxes levied on foreign dividends.


Equity contribution agreement

An agreement to contribute equity to a project under certain specified
conditions.


Fiscal agency agreement

An alternative to a bond trust deed. Unlike the trustee, the fiscal agent acts as an
agent of the borrower.


Flat trades

1) A bond in default trades flat; that is, the price quoted covers both principal and unpaid,
accrued interest.
2) Any security that trades without accrued interest or at a price that includes accrued
interest is said to trade flat.


Floor trader

A member who generally trades only for his own account, for an account controlled by him or
who has such a trade made for him. Also referred to as a "local".


Forward rate agreement (FRA)

agreement to borrow or lend at a specified future date at an interest rate
that is fixed today.


Forward trade

A transaction in which the settlement will occur on a specified date in the future at a price
agreed upon the trade date.


free cash flow

Generally speaking, this term refers to cash flow from
profit (cash flow from operating activities, to use the more formal term).
The underlying idea is that a business is free to do what it wants with its
cash flow from profit. However, a business usually has many ongoing
commitments and demands on this cash flow, so it may not actually be
free to decide what do with this source of cash. Warning: This term is
not officially defined anywhere and different persons use the term to
mean different things. Pay particular attention to how an author or
speaker is using the term.



Free Cash Flow

The funds available for distribution to the capital providers of the
company after investments inside the company have been made


Free cash flows

Cash not required for operations or for reinvestment. Often defined as earnings before
interest (often obtained from operating income line on the income statement) less capital expenditures less the
change in working capital.


Free float

An exchange rate system characterized by the absence of government intervention. Also known as
clean float.


Free on board

Implies that distributive services like transport and handling performed on goods up to the
customs frontier of the economy from which the goods are classed as merchandise.


Free-on-Board (FOB) Destination

A shipping arrangement agreed to between buyer and
seller where title to the goods sold passes when the goods in question reach their destination.
When goods are shipped FOB destination, revenue is properly recognized when the goods reach
their destination.


Free-on-Board (FOB) Shipping Point

A shipping arrangement agreed to between buyer and
seller where title to the goods sold passes when the goods in question are delivered to a common
carrier. When goods are shipped FOB shipping point, revenue is properly recognized when the
goods are delivered to the common carrier.


Free reserves

Excess reserves minus member bank borrowings at the Fed.


Free rider

A follower who avoids the cost and expense of finding the best course of action and by simply
mimicking the behavior of a leader who made these investments.


Free Trade

The absence of any government restrictions, such as tariffs or quotas, on imports or exports.


General Agreement

on Tariffs and trade (GATT) a treaty
among many nations setting standards for tariffs and trade
for signees


Information-motivated trades

trades in which an investor believes he or she possesses pertinent
information not currently reflected in the stock's price.


Informationless trades

trades that are the result of either a reallocation of wealth or an implementation of an
investment strategy that only utilizes existing information.


Interest rate agreement

An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the
other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined
level (the strike rate).


NAFTA

north american free trade agreement, negotiated in 1992 to extend the Canada/U.S. free trade agreement to include Mexico.


Note agreement

A contract for privately placed debt.


Posttrade benchmarks

Prices after the decision to trade.


Pre-trade benchmarks

Prices occurring before or at the decision to trade.


Preferred stock agreement

A contract for preferred stock.


Program trades

Also called basket trades, orders requiring the execution of trades in a large number of
different stocks at as near the same time as possible. Related: block trade


Publicly traded assets

Assets that can be traded in a public market, such as the stock market.


Purchase agreement

As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to purchase a specific
amount of project output per period.


Purchase Agreement

This legal document records the final understanding of the parties with respect to the proposed transaction.


Raw material supply agreement

As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to furnish a
specified amount per period of a specified raw material.


Registered trader

A member of the exchange who executes frequent trades for his or her own account.


Repurchase agreement

An agreement with a commitment by the seller (dealer) to buy a security back from
the purchaser (customer) at a specified price at a designated future date. Also called a repo, it represents a
collateralized short-term loan, where the collateral may be a Treasury security, money market instrument,
federal agency security, or mortgage-backed security. From the purchaser (customer) perspective, the deal is
reported as a reverse Repo.


Reversing trade

Entering the opposite side of a currently held futures position to close out the position.


Revolving credit agreement

A legal commitment wherein a bank promises to lend a customer up to a
specified maximum amount during a specified period.


Risk-free asset

An asset whose future return is known today with certainty.


Risk-free rate

The rate earned on a riskless asset.


Risk-free Rate

The rate of return on an investment with known future benefits; a
riskless rate of return, often estimated using the return earned on
short-term U.S. Treasury securities


Risk-Free Rate

The rate of return obtainable on government of Canada treasury bills.


Riskless or risk-free asset

An asset whose future return is known today with certainty. The risk free asset is
commonly defined as short-term obligations of the U.S. government.


Smithsonian agreement

A revision to the Bretton Woods international monetary system which was signed at
the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., U.S.A., in December 1971. Included were a new set of par
values, widened bands to +/- 2.25% of par, and an increase in the official value of gold to US$38.00 per ounce.


Spot trade

The purchase and sale of a foreign currency, commodity, or other item for immediate delivery.


Standby agreement

In a rights issue, agreement that the underwriter will purchase any stock not purchased by investors.


Standstill agreements

Contracts where the bidding firm in a takeover attempt agrees to limit its holdings
another firm.


Tax clawback agreement

An agreement to contribute as equity to a project the value of all previously
realized project-related tax benefits not already clawed back to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency of the project.


Tax free acquisition

A merger or consolidation in which 1) the acquirer's tax basis in each asset whose
ownership is transferred in the transaction is generally the same as the acquiree's, and 2) each seller who
receives only stock does not have to pay any tax on the gain he realizes until the shares are sold.


Terms of trade

The weighted average of a nation's export prices relative to its import prices.


Terms of Trade

The quantity of imports that can be obtained for a unit of exports, measured by the ratio of an export price index to an import price index.


Thinly traded

Infrequently traded.


Throughput agreement

An agreement to put a specified amount of product per period through a particular
facility. For example, an agreement to ship a specified amount of crude oil per period through a particular
pipeline.


Tolling agreement

An agreement to put a specified amount of raw material per period through a particular
processing facility. For example, an agreement to process a specified amount of alumina into aluminum at a
particular aluminum plant.


Totalization Agreement

An agreement between countries whereby an employee only has to pay Social Security taxes to the country in which he or she is working


Trade

A verbal (or electronic) transaction involving one party buying a security from another party. Once a
trade is consummated, it is considered "done" or final. Settlement occurs 1-5 business days later.


Trade acceptance

Written demand that has been accepted by an industrial company to pay a given sum at a future date.
Related: banker's acceptance.


Trade credit

Credit granted by a firm to another firm for the purchase of goods or services.


Trade date

In an interest rate swap, the date that the counterparties commit to the swap. Also, the date on
which a trade occurs. trades generally settle (are paid for) 1-5 business days after a trade date. With stocks,
settlement is generally 3 business days after the trade.


Trade debt

Accounts payable.


Trade Deficit

Deficit on the balance of merchandise trade.


Trade draft

A draft addressed to a commercial enterprise. See:draft.


Trade house

A firm which deals in actual commodities.


Trade Loading

A term used for channel stuffing in the domestic tobacco industry.


trade-off theory

Debt levels are chosen to balance interest tax shields against the costs of financial distress.


Trade on top of

trade at a narrow or no spread in basis points relative to some other bond yield, usually
Treasury bonds.


Traders

Persons who take positions in securities and their derivatives with the objective of making profits.
traders can make markets by trading the flow. When they do that, their objective is to earn the bid/ask spread.
traders can also be of the sort who take proprietary positions whereby they seek to profit from the directional
movement of prices or spread positions.


Uptick trade

Related:Tick-test rules


World Trade Organization (WTO)

the arbiter of global trade that was created in 1995 under the General agreement on Tariffs and trade; each signatory country has one
vote in trade disputes



 

 

 

 

 

 

Related to : financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.


Copyrightę 2019 www.finance-lib.com