Financial Terms Net realizeable value

# Definition of Net realizeable value

## Net realizeable value

The expected revenue to be gained from the sale of an item or
service, less the costs of the sale transaction.

# Related Terms:

## NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.

## PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in todayâ€™s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.

## Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.

## Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.

## Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).

Book value.

## Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.

## Conversion value

Also called parity value, the value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately.

## European Monetary System (EMS)

An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that involves the currencies
of European Union member countries.

## Exercise value

The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money
option.

## Expected value

The weighted average of a probability distribution.

## Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.

## Exposure netting

Offsetting exposures in one currency with exposures in the same or another currency,
where exchange rates are expected to move in such a way that losses or gains on the first exposed position
should be offset by gains or losses on the second currency exposure.

## Extraordinary positive value

A positive net present value.

See: Par value.

## Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.

## Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.

## International Monetary Fund

An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of
member countries and to lend foreign currency reserves to members with short-term balance of payment
problems.

## International Monetary Market (IMM)

A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial
futures. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).

## Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

## Intrinsic value of a firm

The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the
required rate of return.

## Investment value

Related:straight value.

## Liquidation value

net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt.

## Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.

## Market value

1) The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold.
2) The value investors believe a firm is worth; calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the
current market price of a firm's shares.

## Market value ratios

Ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.

## Market value-weighted index

An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average
of the returns on each security in the index, with the weights proportional to outstanding market value.

## Maturity value

Related: par value.

## Monetary gold

Gold held by governmental authorities as a financial asset.

## Monetary policy

Actions taken by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to influence the
money supply or interest rates.

## Monetary / non-monetary method

Under this translation method, monetary items (e.g. cash, accounts
payable and receivable, and long-term debt) are translated at the current rate while non-monetary items (e.g.
inventory, fixed assets, and long-term investments) are translated at historical rates.

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.

The net present value of the savings from a refunding.

The net present value of entering into a lease financing arrangement rather than
borrowing the necessary funds and buying the asset.

The difference in total post- and pre-merger market value minus the cost of the merger.

## Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.

## Net assets

The difference between total assets on the one hand and current liabilities and noncapitalized longterm
liabilities on the other hand.

## Net benefit to leverage factor

A linear approximation of a factor, T*, that enables one to operationalize the
total impact of leverage on firm value in the capital market imperfections view of capital structure.

## Net book value

The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any

## Net cash balance

Beginning cash balance plus cash receipts minus cash disbursements.

## Net change

This is the difference between a day's last trade and the previous day's last trade.

## Net errors and omissions

In balance of payments accounting, net errors and omissions record the statistical
discrepancies that arise in gathering balance of payments data.

## Net financing cost

Also called the cost of carry or, simply, carry, the difference between the cost of financing
the purchase of an asset and the asset's cash yield. Positive carry means that the yield earned is greater than
the financing cost; negative carry means that the financing cost exceeds the yield earned.

## Net float

Sum of disbursement float and collection float.

## Net income

The company's total earnings, reflecting revenues adjusted for costs of doing business,
depreciation, interest, taxes and other expenses.

## Net investment

Gross, or total, investment minus depreciation.

## Net lease

A lease arrangement under which the lessee is responsible for all property taxes, maintenance
expenses, insurance, and other costs associated with keeping the asset in good working condition.

## Net operating losses

Losses that a firm can take advantage of to reduce taxes.

## Net operating margin

The ratio of net operating income to net sales.

## Net period

The period of time between the end of the discount period and the date payment is due.

## Net present value (NPV)

The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost.

## Net present value of growth opportunities

A model valuing a firm in which net present value of new
investment opportunities is explicitly examined.

## Net present value of future investments

The present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from
all of the firm's future investments.

## Net present value rule

An investment is worth making if it has a positive NPV. Projects with negative NPVs
should be rejected.

## Net profit margin

net income divided by sales; the amount of each sales dollar left over after all expenses
have been paid.

## Net salvage value

The after-tax net cash flow for terminating the project.

## Net working capital

Current assets minus current liabilities. Often simply referred to as working capital.

## Net worth

Common stockholders' equity which consists of common stock, surplus, and retained earnings.

## Netting

Reducing transfers of funds between subsidiaries or separate companies to a net amount.

## Netting out

To get or bring in as a net; to clear as profit.

## Original face value

The principal amount of the mortgage as of its issue date.

## Par value

Also called the maturity value or face value, the amount that the issuer agrees to pay at the maturity date.

## Parity value

Related:conversion value

## Payments netting

Reducing fund transfers between affiliates to only a netted amount. netting can be done on
a bilateral basis (between pairs of affiliates), or on a multi-lateral basis (taking all affiliates together).

## Present value

The amount of cash today that is equivalent in value to a payment, or to a stream of payments,
to be received in the future.

## Present value factor

Factor used to calculate an estimate of the present value of an amount to be received in
a future period.

## Present value of growth opportunities (NPV)

net present value of investments the firm is expected to make
in the future.

## Price value of a basis point (PVBP)

Also called the dollar value of a basis point, a measure of the change in
the price of the bond if the required yield changes by one basis point.

## Relative value

The attractiveness measured in terms of risk, liquidity, and return of one instrument relative to
another, or for a given instrument, of one maturity relative to another.

## Replacement value

Current cost of replacing the firm's assets.

## Residual value

Usually refers to the value of a lessor's property at the time the lease expires.

## Safety-net return

The minimum available return that will trigger an immunization strategy in a contingent
immunization strategy.

## Salvage value

Scrap value of plant and equipment.

## SIMEX (Singapore International Monetary Exchange)

A leading futures and options exchange in Singapore.

## Standardized value

Also called the normal deviate, the distance of one data point from the mean, divided by
the standard deviation of the distribution.

## Straight value

Also called investment value, the value of a convertible security without the con-version option.

## Terminal value

The value of a bond at maturity, typically its par value, or the value of an asset (or an entire
firm) on some specified future valuation date.

## Time value of an option

The portion of an option's premium that is based on the amount of time remaining
until the expiration date of the option contract, and that the underlying components that determine the value of
the option may change during that time. Time value is generally equal to the difference between the premium
and the intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

## Time value of money

The idea that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, because the dollar
received today can earn interest up until the time the future dollar is received.

## Utility value

The welfare a given investor assigns to an investment with a particular return and risk.

Method of indirect taxation whereby a tax is levied at each stage of production on the value

## Value-at-Risk model (VAR)

Procedure for estimating the probability of portfolio losses exceeding some
specified proportion based on a statistical analysis of historical market price trends, correlations, and volatilities.

Prevails when the value of a whole group of assets exactly equals the sum of the
values of the individual assets that make up the group of assets. Stated differently, the principle that the net
present value of a set of independent projects is just the sum of the net present values of the individual projects.

## Value date

In the market for Eurodollar deposits and foreign exchange, value date refers to the delivery date
of funds traded. Normally it is on spot transactions two days after a transaction is agreed upon and the future
date in the case of a forward foreign exchange trade.

## Value dating

Refers to when value or credit is given for funds transferred between banks.

## Value manager

A manager who seeks to buy stocks that are at a discount to their "fair value" and sell them at
or in excess of that value. Often a value stock is one with a low price to book value ratio.

## BOOK VALUE

An assetâ€™s cost basis minus accumulated depreciation.

## BOOK VALUE OF COMMON STOCK

The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a companyâ€™s assets were sold on the balance sheetâ€™s date. Book value equals:
(Stockholdersâ€™ equity) / (Common stock shares outstanding)

## CAPITAL IN EXCESS OF PAR VALUE

What a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share.

## NET INCOME

The profit a company makes after cost of goods sold, expenses, and taxes are subtracted from net sales.

## NET SALES (revenue)

The amount sold after customersâ€™ returns, sales discounts, and other allowances are taken away from
gross sales. (Companies usually just show the net sales amount on their income statements, omitting returns, allowances, and the like.)

## PAR VALUE

An arbitrary value that a company may assign to its stock. Par value has no relationship to what the stock is selling for on the open market.

## RATIO OF NET INCOME TO NET SALES

A ratio that shows how much net income (profit) a company made on each dollar of net sales. Hereâ€™s the formula:
(net income) / (net sales)

## RATIO OF NET SALES TO NET INCOME

A ratio that shows how much a company had to collect in net sales to make a dollar of profit. Figure it this way:
(net sales) / (net income)

## SALVAGE VALUE

The amount management estimates a piece of equipment will be worth at the end of its useful life, either as a trade-in or if it were sold for scrap.

A method of investment appraisal that calculates the ratio of the net present value of an
investment to the initial capital investment.

Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge
to cover the cost of capital invested in the business.

## Net present value (NPV)

A discounted cash flow technique used for investment appraisal that calculates the present value of future cash flows and deducts the initial capital investment.