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multiprocess handling

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Definition of multiprocess handling

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multiprocess handling

the ability of a worker to monitor
and operate several (or all) machines in a manufacturing
cell or perform all steps of a specific task



Related Terms:

Accountability

The process of satisfying stakeholders in the organization that managers have acted in the best interests of the stakeholders, a result of the stewardship function of managers, which takes place through accounting.


acid test ratio (also called the quick ratio)

The sum of cash, accounts receivable, and short-term marketable
investments (if any) is divided by
total current liabilities to compute this ratio. Suppose that the short-term
creditors were to pounce on a business and not agree to roll over the
debts owed to them by the business. In this rather extreme scenario, the
acid test ratio reveals whether its cash and near-cash assets are enough
to pay its short-term current liabilities. This ratio is an extreme test that
is not likely to be imposed on a business unless it is in financial straits.
This ratio is quite relevant when a business is in a liquidation situation
or bankruptcy proceedings.


All equity rate

The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project and abstracts from the
effects of financing.


All-in cost

Total costs, explicit and implicit.


All or none

Requirement that none of an order be executed unless all of it can be executed at the specified price.



All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.


allocate

assign based on the use of a cost driver, a cost predictor,
or an arbitrary method


Multiprocess Handling Image 1

allocation

the systematic assignment of an amount to a recipient
set of categories annuity a series of equal cash flows (either positive or negative) per period


Allocation

The process of storing costs in one account and shifting them to other
accounts, based on some relevant measure of activity.


Allocation base A measure of activity or volume such as labour

hours, machine hours or volume of production
used to apportion overheads to products and
services.


Allowance for bad debts

An offset to the accounts receivable balance, against which
bad debts are charged. The presence of this allowance allows one to avoid severe
changes in the period-to-period bad debt expense by expensing a steady amount to
the allowance account in every period, rather than writing off large bad debts to
expense on an infrequent basis.


Allowance for doubtful accounts

A contra account related to accounts receivable that represents the amounts that the company expects will not be collected.


Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

An estimate of the uncollectible portion of accounts receivable
that is subtracted from the gross amount of accounts receivable to arrive at the estimated collectible
amount.


Allowance method

A method of adjusting accounts receivable to the amount that is expected to be collected based on company experience.


approximated net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products using a
simulated net realizable value at the split-off point; approximated
value is computed as final sales price minus
incremental separate costs


Asset allocation decision

The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
major classes of assets in which it may invest.


Multiprocess Handling Image 2

Asset/liability management

Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
institution to accomplish the two goals of a financial institution:
1) to earn an adequate return on funds invested, and
2) to maintain a comfortable surplus of assets beyond liabilities.


Asset-specific Risk

The amount of total risk that can be eliminated by diversification by
creating a portfolio. Also known as company-specific risk or
unsystematic risk.



Availability float

Checks deposited by a company that have not yet been cleared.


availability float

Checks already deposited that have not yet been cleared.


Balloon maturity

Any large principal payment due at maturity for a bond or loan with or without a a sinking
fund requirement.


BARRA's performance analysis (PERFAN)

A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in
Berkeley, Calif. It is commonly used by institutional investors applying performance attribution analysis to
evaluate their money managers' performances.


Base probability of loss

The probability of not achieving a portfolio expected return.


Borrower fallout

In the mortgage pipeline, the risk that prospective borrowers of loans committed to be
closed will elect to withdraw from the contract.


Call

An option that gives the right to buy the underlying futures contract.


Call

a. An option to buy a certain quantity of a stock or commodity for a
specified price within a specified time. See Put.
b. A demand to submit bonds to the issuer for redemption before the maturity date.
c. A demand for payment of a debt.
d. A demand for payment due on stock bought on margin.


Call an option

To exercise a call option.


Multiprocess Handling Image 3

Call date

A date before maturity, specified at issuance, when the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond
for a specified call price.



Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.


Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
contract.
Call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.


Call Option

A contract that gives the holder the right to buy an asset for a
specified price on or before a given expiration (maturity) date


call option

Right to buy an asset at a specified exercise price on or before the exercise date.


Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.


Call price

The price for which a bond can be repaid before maturity under a call provision.


Call protection

A feature of some callable bonds that establishes an initial period when the bonds may not be
called.


Call provision

An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of the issue prior
to maturity.


Call risk

The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision.


Call swaption

A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The
writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating rate payer.


Callable

A financial security such as a bond with a call option attached to it, i.e., the issuer has the right to
call the security.


Callable bond

A bond that allows the issuer to buy back the bond at a
predetermined price at specified future dates. The bond contains an embedded
call option; i.e., the holder has sold a call option to the issuer. See Puttable
bond.


callable bond

Bond that may be repurchased by the issuer before maturity at specified call price.


Capital allocation

decision allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.


Capital Consumption Allowance

See depreciation.


Capital Cost Allowance (CCA)

The annual depreciation expense allowed by the Canadian Income Tax Act.


Chinese wall

Communication barrier between financiers (investment bankers) and traders. This barrier is
erected to prevent the sharing of inside information that bankers are likely to have.


Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee

The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s performance Presentation Standards Implementation
Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise and update the AIMR performance
Presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS(TM)) for portfolio performance presentations.


Company-specific risk

Related: Unsystematic risk


Companyspecific Risk

See asset-specific risk


computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

the use of computers to control production processes through numerically
controlled (NC) machines, robots, and automated assembly systems


computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

the integration of two or more flexible manufacturing systems through the use of a host computer and an information networking system


Contingent Liability

An obligation that is dependent on the occurrence or nonoccurrence of
one or more future events to confirm the existence of an obligation, the amount owed, the payee,
or the date payable.


Contingent pension liability

Under ERISA, the firm is liable to the plan participants for up to 39% of the net
worth of the firm.


cost allocation

the assignment, using some reasonable basis,
of any indirect cost to one or more cost objects


Covered call

A short call option position in which the writer owns the number of shares of the underlying
stock represented by the option contracts. Covered calls generally limit the risk the writer takes because the
stock does not have to be bought at the market price, if the holder of that option decides to exercise it.


Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.


Cumulative probability distribution

A function that shows the probability that the random variable will
attain a value less than or equal to each value that the random variable can take on.


Current liability

This is typically the accounts payable, short-term notes payable, and
accrued expense accounts on the balance sheet, or any other liabilities that are
expected to be liquidated within a short time interval.


Deferred call

A provision that prohibits the company from calling the bond before a certain date. During this
period the bond is said to be call protected.


Deferred Tax Liability

Future tax obligation that results from the origination of a temporary
difference that causes pretax book income to exceed taxable income.


Depreciation Allowances

Tax deductions that businesses can claim when they spend money on investment goods.


design for manufacturability (DFM)

a process that is part of the project management of a new product; concerned with finding optimal solutions to minimizing product failures
and other adversities in the delivery of a new product
to customers


Disability

Inability to work due to injury or sickness.


Disability Insurance

Insurance that pays you an ongoing income if you become disabled and are unable to pursue employment or business activities. There are limits to how much you can receive based on your pre-disability earnings. Rates will vary based on occupational duties and length of time in a particular industry. This kind of coverage has a waiting period before you can begin collecting benefits, usually 30, 60 or 90 days. The benefit paying period also varies from 2 years to age 65. A short waiting period will cost more that a longer waiting period. As well, a long benefit paying period will cost more than a short benefit paying period.


Disability Insurance (Credit Insurance)

Group Insurance designed to cover monthly obligations due to a borrower being unable to work due to sickness or injury.


Discouraged Worker

An unemployed person who gives up looking for work and so is no longer counted as in the labor force.


DLOM (discount for lack of marketability)

an amount or percentage deducted from an equity interest to reflect lack of marketability.


Dynamic asset allocation

An asset allocation strategy in which the asset mix is mechanistically shifted in
response to -changing market conditions, as in a portfolio insurance strategy, for example.


economically reworked

when the incremental revenue from the sale of reworked defective units is greater than
the incremental cost of the rework


Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.


Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF)

A special committee of the Financial Accounting Standards Board established to reach consensus of how to account for new and unusual financial transactions that have the potential for creating differing financial reporting practices.


Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF)

A separate committee within the Financial Accounting Standards Board composed of 13 members representing CPA firms and preparers of financial statements
whose purpose is to reach a consensus on how to account for new and unusual financial transactions
that have the potential for creating differing financial reporting practices.


Evidence of Insurability

Evidence submitted to Canada Life that is used to determine whether an individual is eligible for the insurance coverage the individual has applied for.


Fallacy of Composition

The incorrect conclusion that something that is true for an individual is necessarily true for the economy as a whole.


Fallout risk

A type of mortgage pipeline risk that is generally created when the terms of the loan to be
originated are set at the same time as the sale terms are set. The risk is that either of the two parties, borrower
or investor, fails to close and the loan "falls out" of the pipeline.


Federally related institutions

Arms of the federal government that are exempt from SEC registration and
whose securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government (with the exception of the
Tennessee Valley Authority).


Firm-specific risk

See:diversifiable risk or unsystematic risk.


First-call

With CMOs, the start of the cash flow cycle for the cash flow window.


flexible manufacturing system (FMS)

a production system in which a single factory manufactures numerous variations
of products through the use of computer-controlled
robots
focused factory arrangement
an arrangement in which a
vendor (which may be an external party or an internal corporate
division) agrees to provide a limited number of
products according to specifications or to perform a limited
number of unique services to a company that is typically
operating on a just-in-time system


Generally Accepted Accounting Principals (GAAP)

A technical accounting term that encompasses the
conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted accounting practice at a particular time.


Generally accepted accounting principles

The rules that accountants follow when processing accounting transactions and creating financial reports. The rules are primarily
derived from regulations promulgated by the various branches of the AICPA Council.


generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)

This important term
refers to the body of authoritative rules for measuring profit and preparing
financial statements that are included in financial reports by a business
to its outside shareowners and lenders. The development of these
guidelines has been evolving for more than 70 years. Congress passed a
law in 1934 that bestowed primary jurisdiction over financial reporting
by publicly owned businesses to the Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC). But the SEC has largely left the development of GAAP to the
private sector. Presently, the Financial Accounting Standards Board is
the primary (but not the only) authoritative body that makes pronouncements
on GAAP. One caution: GAAP are like a movable feast. New rules
are issued fairly frequently, old rules are amended from time to time,
and some rules established years ago are discarded on occasion. Professional
accountants have a heck of time keeping up with GAAP, that’s for
sure. Also, new GAAP rules sometimes have the effect of closing the barn
door after the horse has left. Accounting abuses occur, and only then,
after the damage has been done, are new rules issued to prevent such
abuses in the future.


generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)

Procedures for preparing financial statements.


Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)

A common set of standards and procedures
for the preparation of general-purpose financial statements that either have been established
by an authoritative accounting rule-making body, such as the Financial Accounting
Standards Board (FASB), or over time have become accepted practice because of their universal
application.


Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)

GAAP is the term used to describe the underlying rules basis on which financial statements are normally prepared. This is codified in the Handbook of The Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants.


Glass-Steagall Act

A 1933 act in which Congress forbade commercial banks to own, underwrite, or deal in
corporate stock and corporate bonds.


Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)

A federal Act expanding upon many of the insurance reforms created by
COBRA. In particular, it ensures that small businesses will have access to
health insurance, despite the special health status of any employees.


High-Risk Small Business

Firm viewed as being particularly subject to risk from an investors perspective.


Implied call

The right of the homeowner to prepay, or call, the mortgage at any time.


Installment sale

The sale of an asset in exchange for a specified series of payments (the installments).


Institutionally Induced Unemployment

Unemployment due to institutional phenomena such as the degree of labor force unionization, the level of discrimination, and government policies such as unemployment insurance programs, minimum wages, or regulations on business.


Internally efficient market

Operationally efficient market.


internally generated funds

Cash reinvested in the firm; depreciation plus earnings not paid out as dividends.


Investor fallout

In the mortgage pipeline, risk that occurs when the originator commits loan terms to the
borrowers and gets commitments from investors at the time of application, or if both sets of terms are made at closing.


Irrational call option

The implied call imbedded in the MBS. Identified as irrational because the call is
sometimes not exercised when it is in the money (interest rates are below the threshold to refinance).
Sometimes exercised when not in the money (home sold without regard to the relative level of interest rates).


Just-in-time manufacturing

The term for several manufacturing innovations that
result in a “pull” method of production, in which each manufacturing workstation
creates just enough product for the immediate needs of the next workstation in the
production process.


just-in-time manufacturing system

a production system that attempts to acquire components and produce inventory only as needed, to minimize product defects, and to
reduce lead/setup times for acquisition and production


Liability

A financial obligation, or the cash outlay that must be made at a specific time to satisfy the
contractual terms of such an obligation.


Liability

A dollar amount of obligation payable to another entity.


Liability

A probable future sacrifice of economic benefits arising from present obligations of
a particular entity to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the future as a result of
past transactions or events.


Liability funding strategies

Investment strategies that select assets so that cash flows will equal or exceed
the client's obligations.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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