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Market value-weighted index

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Definition of Market value-weighted index

Market Value-weighted Index Image 1

Market value-weighted index

An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average
of the returns on each security in the index, with the weights proportional to outstanding market value.



Related Terms:

DLOM (discount for lack of marketability)

an amount or percentage deducted from an equity interest to reflect lack of marketability.


NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.


PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in today’s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .


QMDM (quantitative marketability discount model)

model for calculating DLOM for minority interests r the discount rate


Adjusted present value (APV)

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.



Arms index

Also known as a trading index (TRIN)= (number of advancing issues)/ (number of declining
issues) (Total up volume )/ (total down volume). An advance/decline market indicator. Less than 1.0 indicates
bullish demand, while above 1.0 is bearish. The index often is smoothed with a simple moving average.


Auction markets

markets in which the prevailing price is determined through the free interaction of
prospective buyers and sellers, as on the floor of the stock exchange.


Market Value-weighted Index Image 2

Bear market

Any market in which prices are in a declining trend.


Black market

An illegal market.


Bond indexing

Designing a portfolio so that its performance will match the performance of some bond index.


Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.


Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.


Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).


Brokered market

A market where an intermediary offers search services to buyers and sellers.


Bull market

Any market in which prices are in an upward trend.


Bulldog market

The foreign market in the United Kingdom.


Market Value-weighted Index Image 3

Buying the index

Purchasing the stocks in the S&P 500 in the same proportion as the index to achieve the
same return.


Capital market

The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).



Capital market efficiency

Reflects the relative amount of wealth wasted in making transactions. An efficient
capital market allows the transfer of assets with little wealth loss. See: efficient market hypothesis.


Capital market imperfections view

The view that issuing debt is generally valuable but that the firm's
optimal choice of capital structure is a dynamic process that involves the other views of capital structure (net
corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), which result from considerations of
asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs.


Capital market line (CML)

The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.


Carrying value

Book value.


Cash markets

Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security
or instrument.
Related: derivative markets.


Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.


Common market

An agreement between two or more countries that permits the free movement of capital
and labor as well as goods and services.


Common stock market

The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.


Complete capital market

A market in which there is a distinct marketable security for each and every
possible outcome.


Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The CPI, as it is called, measures the prices of consumer goods and services and is a
measure of the pace of U.S. inflation. The U.S.Department of Labor publishes the CPI very month.



Conversion value

Also called parity value, the value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately.


Corner A Market

To purchase enough of the available supply of a commodity or stock in order to
manipulate its price.


Dealer market

A market where traders specializing in particular commodities buy and sell assets for their
own accounts.


Debt market

The market for trading debt instruments.


Derivative markets

markets for derivative instruments.


Direct search market

Buyers and sellers seek each other directly and transact directly.


Dollar-weighted rate of return

Also called the internal rate of return, the interest rate that will make the
present value of the cash flows from all the subperiods in the evaluation period plus the terminal market value
of the portfolio equal to the initial market value of the portfolio.


Domestic market

Part of a nation's internal market representing the mechanisms for issuing and trading
securities of entities domiciled within that nation. Compare external market and foreign market.


EAFE index

The European, Australian, and Far East stock index, computed by Morgan Stanley.


Efficient capital market

A market in which new information is very quickly reflected accurately in share
prices.


Efficient Market Hypothesis

In general the hypothesis states that all relevant information is fully and
immediately reflected in a security's market price thereby assuming that an investor will obtain an equilibrium
rate of return. In other words, an investor should not expect to earn an abnormal return (above the market
return) through either technical analysis or fundamental analysis. Three forms of efficient market hypothesis
exist: weak form (stock prices reflect all information of past prices), semi-strong form (stock prices reflect all
publicly available information) and strong form (stock prices reflect all relevant information including insider
information).


Either-way market

In the interbank Eurodollar deposit market, an either-way market is one in which the bid
and offered rates are identical.


Emerging markets

The financial markets of developing economies.


Enhanced indexing

Also called indexing plus, an indexing strategy whose objective is to exceed or replicate
the total return performance of some predetermined index.


Equilibrium market price of risk

The slope of the capital market line (CML). Since the CML represents the
return offered to compensate for a perceived level of risk, each point on the line is a balanced market
condition, or equilibrium. The slope of the line determines the additional return needed to compensate for a
unit change in risk.


Equity market

Related:Stock market


Eurocurrency market

The money market for borrowing and lending currencies that are held in the form of
deposits in banks located outside the countries of the currencies issued as legal tender.


Excess return on the market portfolio

The difference between the return on the market portfolio and the
riskless rate.


Exercise value

The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money
option.


Expected value

The weighted average of a probability distribution.


Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.


External market

Also referred to as the international market, the offshore market, or, more popularly, the
Euromarket, the mechanism for trading securities that (1) at issuance are offered simultaneously to investors
in a number of countries and (2) are issued outside the jurisdiction of any single country. Related: internal
market


Extraordinary positive value

A positive net present value.


Face value

See: Par value.


Fair market price

Amount at which an asset would change hands between two parties, both having
knowledge of the relevant facts. Also referred to as market price.


Federal funds market

The market where banks can borrow or lend reserves, allowing banks temporarily
short of their required reserves to borrow reserves from banks that have excess reserves.


Financial market

An organized institutional structure or mechanism for creating and exchanging financial assets.


Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.


Fixed-income market

The market for trading bonds and preferred stock.


Foreign banking market

That portion of domestic bank loans supplied to foreigners for use abroad.


Foreign bond market

That portion of the domestic bond market that represents issues floated by foreign
companies to governments.


Foreign equity market

That portion of the domestic equity market that represents issues floated by foreign companies.


Foreign market

Part of a nation's internal market, representing the mechanisms for issuing and trading
securities of entities domiciled outside that nation. Compare external market and domestic market.


Foreign market beta

A measure of foreign market risk that is derived from the capital asset pricing model.


Forward market

A market in which participants agree to trade some commodity, security, or foreign
exchange at a fixed price for future delivery.


Fourth market

Direct trading in exchange-listed securities between investors without the use of a broker.


Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.


Futures market

A market in which contracts for future delivery of a commodity or a security are bought or sold.


Gray market

Purchases and sales of eurobonds that occur before the issue price is finally set.


Index and Option Market (IOM)

A division of the CME established in 1982 for trading stock index
products and options. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).


Index arbitrage

An investment/trading strategy that exploits divergences between actual and theoretical
futures prices.


Index fund

Investment fund designed to match the returns on a stockmarket index.


Index model

A model of stock returns using a market index such as the S&P 500 to represent common or
systematic risk factors.


Index option

A call or put option based on a stock market index.


Index warrant

A stock index option issued by either a corporate or sovereign entity as part of a security
offering, and guaranteed by an option clearing corporation.


Indexed bond

Bond whose payments are linked to an index, e.g. the consumer price index.


Indexing

A passive instrument strategy consisting of the construction of a portfolio of stocks designed to
track the total return performance of an index of stocks.


Intermarket sector

spread The spread between the interest rate offered in two sectors of the bond market for
issues of the same maturity.


Intermarket spread swaps

An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a
realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.


Internal market

The mechanisms for issuing and trading securities within a nation, including its domestic
market and foreign market.
Compare: external market.


Internally efficient market

Operationally efficient market.


International market

Related: See external market.


International Monetary Market (IMM)

A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial
futures. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).


Intramarket sector spread

The spread between two issues of the same maturity within a market sector. For
instance, the difference in interest rates offered for five-year industrial corporate bonds and five-year utility
corporate bonds.


Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.


Intrinsic value of a firm

The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the
required rate of return.


Inverted market

A futures market in which the nearer months are selling at price premiums to the more
distant months. Related: premium.


Investment value

Related:straight value.


Jensen index

An index that uses the capital asset pricing model to determine whether a money manager
outperformed a market index. The "alpha" of an investment or investment manager.


Liquidation value

Net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt.


Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.


Locked market

A market is locked if the bid = ask price. This can occur, for example, if the market is
brokered and brokerage is paid by one side only, the initiator of the transaction.


Make a market

A dealer is said to make a market when he quotes bid and offered prices at which he stands
ready to buy and sell.


Mark-to-market

The process whereby the book value or collateral value of a security is adjusted to reflect
current market value.


Marked-to-market

An arrangement whereby the profits or losses on a futures contract are settled each day.


Market capitalization

The total dollar value of all outstanding shares. Computed as shares times current
market price. It is a measure of corporate size.


Market capitalization rate

Expected return on a security. The market-consensus estimate of the appropriate
discount rate for a firm's cash flows.


Market clearing

Total demand for loans by borrowers equals total supply of loans from lenders. The market,
any market, clears at the equilibrium rate of interest or price.


Market conversion price

Also called conversion parity price, the price that an investor effectively pays for
common stock by purchasing a convertible security and then exercising the conversion option. This price is
equal to the market price of the convertible security divided by the conversion ratio.


Market cycle

The period between the 2 latest highs or lows of the S&P 500, showing net performance of a
fund through both an up and a down market. A market cycle is complete when the S&P is 15% below the
highest point or 15% above the lowest point (ending a down market). The dates of the last market cycle are:
12/04/87 to 10/11/90 (low to low).


Market impact costs

Also called price impact costs, the result of a bid/ask spread and a dealer's price concession.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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