Definition of Make-to-order
A production scheduling system under which products are only
manufactured once a customer order has been received.
A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
price or lower.
Related: Sell limit order.
Refers to the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated
with a particular country as opposed to events associated solely with a particular economic or financial agent.
An order to buy or sell stock that automatically expires if it can't be executed on the day it is entered.
The order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs.
A trading order that is canceled unless executed within a designated time period.
Related: open order.
An order to buy a stock at or below a specified price or to sell a stock at or above a specified
price. For instance, you could tell a broker "Buy me 100 shares of XYZ Corp at $8 or less" or to "sell 100
shares of XYZ at $10 or better." The customer specifies a price and the order can be executed only if the
market reaches or betters that price. A conditional trading order designed to avoid the danger of adverse
unexpected price changes.
A record of unexecuted limit orders that is maintained by the specialist. These orders are
treated equally with other orders in terms of priority of execution.
A dealer is said to make a market when he quotes bid and offered prices at which he stands
ready to buy and sell.
This is an order to immediately buy or sell a security at the current trading price.
Demand deposits that pay interest.
An individual investor can place an order to buy or sell a security. That
open order stays active until it is completed or the investor cancels it.
The argument that external financing transaction costs, especially
those associated with the problem of adverse selection, create a dynamic environment in which firms have a
preference, or pecking-order of preferred sources of financing, when all else is equal. Internally generated
funds are the most preferred, new debt is next, debt-equity hybrids are next, and new equity is the least
Conditional trading order that indicates that a, security may be sold at the designated price or
higher. Related: buy limit order.
An order to sell a stock when the price falls to a specified level.
An order to buy or sell at the market when a definite price is reached, either above (on a
buy) or below (on a sell) the price that prevailed when the order was given.
A stop order that designates a price limit. In contrast to the stop order, which becomes a
market order once the stop is reached, the stop-limit order becomes a limit order once the stop is reached.
economic order quantity (EOQ)
an estimate of the number
of units per order that will be the least costly and provide
the optimal balance between the costs of ordering
and the costs of carrying inventory
engineering change order (ECO)
a business mandate that changes the way in which a product is manufactured or a
service is performed by modifying the design, parts,
process, or even quality of the product or service
job order cost sheet
a source document that provides virtually
all the financial information about a particular job;
the set of all job order cost sheets for uncompleted jobs
composes the Work in Process Inventory subsidiary ledger
job order costing system
a system of product costing used
by an entity that provides limited quantities of products or
services unique to a customer’s needs; focus of recordkeeping
is on individual jobs
a decision that compares the cost of
internally manufacturing a component of a final product
(or providing a service function) with the cost of purchasing
it from outside suppliers (outsourcing) or from another
division of the company at a specified transfer price
open purchase ordering
a process by which a single purchase
order that expires at a set or determinable future
date is prepared to authorize a supplier to provide a large
quantity of one or more specified items on an as-requested
basis by the customer
the variable cost associated with preparing,
receiving, and paying for an order
the level of inventory that triggers the placement
of an order for additional units; it is determined based
on usage, lead time, and safety stock
special order decision
a situation in which management must determine a sales price to charge for manufacturing or service jobs outside the company’s normal production/service market
economic order quantity
order size that minimizes total inventory costs.
pecking order theory
Firms prefer to issue debt rather than equity if internal finance is insufficient.
A project, such as digging holes and filling them up again, that has no useful purpose other than to make work.
Discrete order picking
A picking method requiring the sequential completion of
each order before one begins picking the next order.
A production scheduling system under which products are completed
before the receipt of customer orders, which are filled from stock.
Order penetration point
The point in the production process when a product is
reserved for a specific customer.
The process of moving items from stock for shipment to customers.
A guaranteed form of payment in amounts up to and including $5,000. You might request a money order in order to pay for tuition fees at a university or a college, or for a magazine subscription.
Materials requirement planning
Computer-based systems that plan backward from the production schedule
to make purchases in order to manage inventory levels.
An accelerated depreciation method that makes the sum of the digits in an asset’s expected
life the denominator for a series of yearly depreciation fractions.
The numerators of these fractions are the asset’s years of life in reverse order.
An increasingly smaller depreciation fraction is applied to the asset’s (cost–salvage) value each year.
A business’s investment in technology, people and materials in order to make, buy and sell products or services to customers.
capital investment analysis
Refers to various techniques and procedures
used to determine or to analyze future returns from an investment
of capital in order to evaluate the capital recovery pattern and the
periodic earnings from the investment. The two basic tools for capital
investment analysis are (1) spreadsheet models (which I strongly prefer)
and (2) mathematical equations for calculating the present value or
internal rate of return of an investment. Mathematical methods suffer
from a lack of information that the decision maker ought to consider. A
spreadsheet model supplies all the needed information and has other
advantages as well.
Outright ownership of a security or financial instrument. The
owner expects the price to rise in order to make a profit on some future sale.
A procedure for making the effective date of a policy earlier than the application date. Backdating is often used to make the age of the consumer at policy issue lower than it actually was in order to get a lower premium.
This is the person who benefits from the terms of a trust, a will, an RRSP, a RRIF, a LIF, an annuity or a life insurance policy. In relation to RRSP's, RRIF's, LIF's, Annuities and of course life insurance, if the beneficiary is a spouse, parent, offspring or grand-child, they are considered to be a preferred beneficiary. If the insured has named a preferred beneficiary, the death benefit is invariably protected from creditors. There have been some court challenges of this right of protection but so far they have been unsuccessful. See "Creditor Protection" below. A beneficiary under the age of 18 must be represented by an individual guardian over the age of 18 or a public official who represents minors generally. A policy owner may, in the designation of a beneficiary, appoint someone to act as trustee for a minor. Death benefits are not subject to income taxes. If you make your beneficiary your estate, the death benefit will be included in your assets for probate. Probate filing fees are currently $14 per thousand of estate value in British Columbia and $15 per thousand of estate value in Ontario.
Another way to avoid probate fees or creditor claims against life insurance proceeds is for the insured person to designate and register with his/her insurance company's head office an irrevocable beneficiary. By making such a designation, the insured gives up the right to make any changes to his/her policy without the consent of the irrevocable beneficiary. Because of the seriousness of the implications, an irrevocable designation should only be made for good reason and where the insured fully understands the consequences.
NoteA successful challenge of the rules relating to beneficiaries was concluded in an Ontario court in 1996. The Insurance Act says its provisions relating to beneficiaries are made "notwithstanding the Succession Law Reform Act." There are two relevent provisions of the Succession Law Reform Act. One section of the act gives a judge the power to make any order concerning an estate if the deceased person has failed to provide for a dependant. Another section says money from a life insurance policy can be considered part of the estate if an order is made to support a dependant. In the case in question, the deceased had attempted to deceive his lawful dependents by making his common-law-spouse the beneficiary of an insurance policy which by court order was supposed to name his ex-spouse and children as beneficiaries.
Insured Retirement Plan
This is a recently coined phrase describing the concept of using Universal Life Insurance to tax shelter earnings which can be used to generate tax-free income in retirement. The concept has been described by some as "the most effective tax-neutralization strategy that exists in Canada today."
In addition to life insurance, a Universal Life Policy includes a tax-sheltered cash value fund that cannot exceed the policy's face value. Deposits made into the policy are partially used to fund the life insurance and partially grow tax sheltered inside the policy. It should be pointed out that in order for this to work, you must make deposits into this kind of policy well in excess of the cost of the underlying insurance. Investment of the cash value inside the policy are commonly mutual fund type investments. Upon retirement, the policy owner can draw on the accumulated capital in his/her policy by using the policy as collateral for a series of demand loans at the bank. The loans are structured so the sum of money borrowed plus interest never exceeds 75% of the accumulated investment account. The loans are only repaid with the tax free death benefit at the death of the policy holder. Any remaining funds are paid out tax free to named beneficiaries.
Recognizing the value to policy holders of this use of Universal Life Insurance, insurance companies are reworking features of their products to allow the policy holder to ask to have the relationship of insurance to investment growth tracked so that investment growth inside the policy may be maximized. The only potential downside of this strategy is the possibility of the government changing the tax rules to prohibit using a life insurance product in this manner.
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