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economic order quantity (EOQ)

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Definition of economic order quantity (EOQ)

Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Image 1

economic order quantity (EOQ)

an estimate of the number
of units per order that will be the least costly and provide
the optimal balance between the costs of ordering
and the costs of carrying inventory


Economic order quantity (EOQ)

The order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs.



Related Terms:

Buy limit order

A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
price or lower.
Related: Sell limit order.


Classical Macroeconomics

The school of macroeconomic thought prior to the rise of Keynesianism.


Cross-border risk

Refers to the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated
with a particular country as opposed to events associated solely with a particular economic or financial agent.


Day order

An order to buy or sell stock that automatically expires if it can't be executed on the day it is entered.



Discrete order picking

A picking method requiring the sequential completion of
each order before one begins picking the next order.


Economic assumptions

economic environment in which the firm expects to reside over the life of the
financial plan.


Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Image 2

economic components model

Abrams’ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
This model consists of four components: the measure of the economic impact of the delay-to-sale, monopsony power to buyers, and incremental transactions costs to both buyers and sellers.


Economic defeasance

See: in-substance defeasance.


Economic dependence

Exists when the costs and/or revenues of one project depend on those of another.


Economic earnings

The real flow of cash that a firm could pay out forever in the absence of any change in
the firm's productive capacity.


Economic exposure

The extent to which the value of the firm will change because of an exchange rate change.


Economic income

Cash flow plus change in present value.


economic integration

the creation of multi-country markets
by developing transnational rules that reduce the fiscal and
physical barriers to trade as well as encourage greater economic
cooperation among countries


Economic life

The period over which a company expects to be able to use an asset.


economic order quantity

order size that minimizes total inventory costs.


Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Image 3

economic production run (EPR)

an estimate of the number
of units to produce at one time that minimizes the total
costs of setting up production runs and carrying inventory


Economic rents

Profits in excess of the competitive level.



Economic risk

In project financing, the risk that the project's output will not be salable at a price that will
cover the project's operating and maintenance costs and its debt service requirements.


Economic surplus

For any entity, the difference between the market value of all its assets and the market
value of its liabilities.


Economic union

An agreement between two or more countries that allows the free movement of capital,
labor, all goods and services, and involves the harmonization and unification of social, fiscal, and monetary
policies.


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge
to cover the cost of capital invested in the business.


economic value added (EVA)

a measure of the extent to which income exceeds the dollar cost of capital; calculated
as income minus (invested capital times the cost of capital percentage)


economic value added (EVA)

Term used by the consulting firm Stern Stewart for profit remaining after deduction of the cost
of the capital employed.


economically reworked

when the incremental revenue from the sale of reworked defective units is greater than
the incremental cost of the rework


Economics

The study of the allocation and distribution of scare resources among competing wants.


engineering change order (ECO)

a business mandate that changes the way in which a product is manufactured or a
service is performed by modifying the design, parts,
process, or even quality of the product or service


Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Image 4

Fill or kill order

A trading order that is canceled unless executed within a designated time period.
Related: open order.



job order cost sheet

a source document that provides virtually
all the financial information about a particular job;
the set of all job order cost sheets for uncompleted jobs
composes the Work in Process Inventory subsidiary ledger


job order costing system

a system of product costing used
by an entity that provides limited quantities of products or
services unique to a customer’s needs; focus of recordkeeping
is on individual jobs


Leading economic indicators

economic series that tend to rise or fall in advance of the rest of the economy.


Limit order

An order to buy a stock at or below a specified price or to sell a stock at or above a specified
price. For instance, you could tell a broker "Buy me 100 shares of XYZ Corp at $8 or less" or to "sell 100
shares of XYZ at $10 or better." The customer specifies a price and the order can be executed only if the
market reaches or betters that price. A conditional trading order designed to avoid the danger of adverse
unexpected price changes.


Limit order book

A record of unexecuted limit orders that is maintained by the specialist. These orders are
treated equally with other orders in terms of priority of execution.


Macroeconomics

The study of the determination of economic aggregates such as total output and the price level.


Make-to-order

A production scheduling system under which products are only
manufactured once a customer order has been received.


Market order

This is an order to immediately buy or sell a security at the current trading price.


material quantity variance

(actual quantity X standard price) - (standard quantity allowed  standard price);
the standard cost saved (favorable) or expended (unfavorable)
due to the difference between the actual quantity
of material used and the standard quantity of material
allowed for the goods produced during the period


Materials quantity variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted quantities
of material used in the production process, multiplied by the standard cost per
unit.


Microeconomics

The study of firm and individual decisions insofar as they affect the allocation and distribution of goods and services.


money order

A guaranteed form of payment in amounts up to and including $5,000. You might request a money order in order to pay for tuition fees at a university or a college, or for a magazine subscription.


Negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW)

Demand deposits that pay interest.


Open (good-til-cancelled) order

An individual investor can place an order to buy or sell a security. That
open order stays active until it is completed or the investor cancels it.


open purchase ordering

a process by which a single purchase
order that expires at a set or determinable future
date is prepared to authorize a supplier to provide a large
quantity of one or more specified items on an as-requested
basis by the customer


Order penetration point

The point in the production process when a product is
reserved for a specific customer.


Order picking

The process of moving items from stock for shipment to customers.


order point

the level of inventory that triggers the placement
of an order for additional units; it is determined based
on usage, lead time, and safety stock


ordering cost

the variable cost associated with preparing,
receiving, and paying for an order


pecking order theory

Firms prefer to issue debt rather than equity if internal finance is insufficient.


Pecking-order view (of capital structure)

The argument that external financing transaction costs, especially
those associated with the problem of adverse selection, create a dynamic environment in which firms have a
preference, or pecking-order of preferred sources of financing, when all else is equal. Internally generated
funds are the most preferred, new debt is next, debt-equity hybrids are next, and new equity is the least
preferred source.


Quantity Adjuster

A firm that reacts to excess supply or excess demand by adjusting quantity rather than price. Contrast with price adjuster.


Quantity Theory of Money

Theory that velocity is constant, and so a change in money supply will change nominal income by the same percentage. Formalized by the equation Mv = PQ.


Sell limit order

Conditional trading order that indicates that a, security may be sold at the designated price or
higher. Related: buy limit order.


special order decision

a situation in which management must determine a sales price to charge for manufacturing or service jobs outside the company’s normal production/service market


standard quantity allowed

the quantity of input (in hours or some other cost driver measurement) required at standard for the output actually achieved for the period


Stop-limit order

A stop order that designates a price limit. In contrast to the stop order, which becomes a
market order once the stop is reached, the stop-limit order becomes a limit order once the stop is reached.


Stop-loss order

An order to sell a stock when the price falls to a specified level.


Stop order (or stop)

An order to buy or sell at the market when a definite price is reached, either above (on a
buy) or below (on a sell) the price that prevailed when the order was given.


Supply-Side Economics

View that incentives to work, save, and invest play an important role in determining economic activity by affecting the supply side of the economy.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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