loads are sales fees (or commissions) that are charged when you buy a mutual fund.

# Related Terms:

## Annual fund operating expenses

For investment companies, the management fee and "other expenses,"
including the expenses for maintaining shareholder records, providing shareholders with financial statements,
and providing custodial and accounting services. For 12b-1 funds, selling and marketing costs are included.

## Balanced fund

An investment company that invests in stocks and bonds. The same as a balanced mutual fund.

## Balanced mutual fund

This is a fund that buys common stock, preferred stock and bonds. The same as a
balanced fund.

## Beta (Mutual Funds)

The measure of a fund's or stocks risk in relation to the market. A beta of 0.7 means
the fund's total return is likely to move up or down 70% of the market change; 1.3 means total return is likely
to move up or down 30% more than the market. Beta is referred to as an index of the systematic risk due to
general market conditions that cannot be diversified away.

## Beta equation (Mutual Funds)

The beta of a fund is determined as follows:
[(n) (sum of (xy)) ]-[ (sum of x) (sum of y)]
[(n) (sum of (xx)) ]-[ (sum of x) (sum of x)]
where: n = # of observations (36 months)
x = rate of return for the S&P 500 Index
y = rate of return for the fund

A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the
early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buy down the mortgage rate to a lower level than the
prevailing market loan rate for some period of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the interest-rate amount
for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown).

To purchase an asset; taking a long position.

To cover, offset or close out a short position. Related: evening up, liquidation.

A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
price or lower.
Related: Sell limit order.

To buy at the end of the trading session at a price within the closing range.

A transaction in which an investor borrows to buy additional shares, using the shares
themselves as collateral.

To buy at the beginning of a trading session at a price within the opening range.

A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the
time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.

Mortgages in which monthly payments consist of principal and interest, with portions of these
payments during the early period of the loan being provided by a third party to reduce the borrower's monthly
payments.

Purchasing the stocks in the S&P 500 in the same proportion as the index to achieve the
same return.

Purchase of a controlling interest (or percent of shares) of a company's stock. A leveraged buy-out is
done with borrowed money.

Another term for a repo.

A financial analyst employed by a non-brokerage firm, typically one of the larger money
management firms that purchase securities on their own accounts.

## Closed-end fund

An investment company that sells shares like any other corporation and usually does not
redeem its shares. A publicly traded fund sold on stock exchanges or over the counter that may trade above or
below its net asset value. Related: Open-end fund.

## Conditional sales contracts

Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to whom the manufacturer has sold the conditional
sales contract.

## Cost of funds

Interest rate associated with borrowing money.

## Custodial fees Fees

charged by an institution that holds securities in safekeeping for an investor.

## Customary payout ratios

A range of payout ratios that is typical based on an analysis of comparable firms.

## Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.

## Days' sales outstanding

Average collection period.

## Dividend payout ratio

Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends.

## Dividend yield (Funds)

Indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past 12
months. Assumes fund was purchased 1 year ago. Reflects effect of sales charges (at current rates), but not
redemption charges.

## Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
export activities.

## Employee stock fund

A firm-sponsored program that enables employees to purchase shares of the firm's
common stock on a preferential basis.

## Endowment funds

Investment funds established for the support of institutions such as colleges, private
schools, museums, hospitals, and foundations. The investment income may be used for the operation of the
institution and for capital expenditures.

## Feasible target payout ratios

Payout ratios that are consistent with the availability of excess funds to make
cash dividend payments.

## Federal funds

Non-interest bearing deposits held in reserve for depository institutions at their district Federal
Reserve Bank. Also, excess reserves lent by banks to each other.

## Federal funds market

The market where banks can borrow or lend reserves, allowing banks temporarily
short of their required reserves to borrow reserves from banks that have excess reserves.

## Federal funds rate

This is the interest rate that banks with excess reserves at a Federal Reserve district bank
charge other banks that need overnight loans. The Fed funds rate, as it is called, often points to the direction
of U.S. interest rates.

## Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC)

A special type of corporation created by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 that
is designed to provide a tax incentive for exporting U.S.-produced goods.

## Forward Fed funds

Fed funds traded for future delivery.

## Full-payout lease

See: financial lease.

## Fund family

Set of funds with different investment objectives offered by one management company. In many
cases, investors may move their assets from one fund to another within the family at little or no cost.

## Fundamental analysis

Security analysis that seeks to detect misvalued securities by an analysis of the firm's
business prospects. Research analysis often focuses on earnings, dividend prospects, expectations for future
interest rates, and risk evaluation of the firm.

## Fundamental beta

The product of a statistical model to predict the fundamental risk of a security using not
only price data but other market-related and financial data.

## Fundamental descriptors

In the model for calculating fundamental beta, ratios in risk indexes other than
market variability, which rely on financial data other than price data.

## Funded debt

Debt maturing after more than one year.

## Funding ratio

The ratio of a pension plan's assets to its liabilities.

## Funding risk

Related: interest rate risk

## Funds From Operations (FFO)

Used by real estate and other investment trusts to define the cash flow from
trust operations. It is earnings with depreciation and amortization added back. A similar term increasingly
used is funds Available for Distribution (FAD), which is FFO less capital investments in trust property and
the amortization of mortgages.

## Global fund

A mutual fund that can invest anywhere in the world, including the U.S.

## Hedge fund

A fund that may employ a variety of techniques to enhance returns, such as both buying and
shorting stocks based on a valuation model.

## High-coupon bond refunding

Refunding of a high-coupon bond with a new, lower coupon bond.

## Income fund

A mutual fund providing for liberal current income from investments.

## Index fund

Investment fund designed to match the returns on a stockmarket index.

## International fund

A mutual fund that can invest only outside the United States.

## International Monetary Fund

An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of
member countries and to lend foreign currency reserves to members with short-term balance of payment
problems.

A transaction used for taking a public corporation private financed through the use
of debt funds: bank loans and bonds. Because of the large amount of debt relative to equity in the new
corporation, the bonds are typically rated below investment grade, properly referred to as high-yield bonds or
junk bonds. Investors can participate in an LBO through either the purchase of the debt (i.e., purchase of the
bonds or participation in the bank loan) or the purchase of equity through an LBO fund that specializes in
such investments.

## Liability funding strategies

Investment strategies that select assets so that cash flows will equal or exceed
the client's obligations.

A mutual fund with shares sold at a price including a large sales charge -- typically 4% to 8% of
the net amount indicated. Some "no-load" funds have distribution fees permitted by article 12b-1 of the
Investment Company Act; these are typically 0. 25%. A "true no-load" fund has neither a sales charge nor
Freddie Mac program, the aggregation that the fund purchaser receives some investment advice or other
service worthy of the charge.

## Low-coupon bond refunding

Refunding of a low coupon bond with a new, higher coupon bond.

Leveraged buyout whereby the acquiring group is led by the firm's management.

## Match fund

A bank is said to match fund a loan or other asset when it does so by buying (taking) a deposit of
the same maturity. The term is commonly used in the Euromarket.

## Money market fund

A mutual fund that invests only in short term securities, such as bankers' acceptances,
commercial paper, repurchase agreements and government bills. The net asset value per share is maintained at
\$1. 00. Such funds are not federally insured, although the portfolio may consist of guaranteed securities
and/or the fund may have private insurance protection.

## Mutual fund

mutual funds are pools of money that are managed by an investment company. They offer
investors a variety of goals, depending on the fund and its investment charter. Some funds, for example, seek
to generate income on a regular basis. Others seek to preserve an investor's money. Still others seek to invest
in companies that are growing at a rapid pace. funds can impose a sales charge, or load, on investors when
they buy or sell shares. Many funds these days are no load and impose no sales charge. mutual funds are
investment companies regulated by the Investment Company Act of 1940.
Related: open-end fund, closed-end fund.

## Mutual fund theorem

A result associated with the CAPM, asserting that investors will choose to invest their
entire risky portfolio in a market-index or mutual fund.

## Mutual offset

A system, such as the arrangement between the CME and SIMEX, which allows trading
positions established on one exchange to be offset or transferred on another exchange.

## Mutually exclusive investment decisions

Investment decisions in which the acceptance of a project
precludes the acceptance of one or more alternative projects.

The net present value of the savings from a refunding.

An open-end investment company, shares of which are sold without a sales charge.
There can be other distribution charges, however, such as Article 12B-1 fees. A true "no load" fund will have
neither a sales charge nor a distribution fee.

A mutual fund that does not impose a sales commission. Related: load fund

## Nonrefundable

Not permitted, under the terms of indenture, to be refundable.

## Objective (mutual fund)

The fund's investment strategy category as stated in the prospectus. There are
more than 20 standardized categories.

## Open-end fund

Also called a mutual fund, an investment company that stands ready to sell new shares to the
public and to redeem its outstanding shares on demand at a price equal to an appropriate share of the value of
its portfolio, which is computed daily at the close of the market.

## Overfunded pension plan

A pension plan that has a positive surplus (i.e., assets exceed liabilities).

## Participating fees

The portion of total fees in a syndicated credit that go to the participating banks.

## Payout ratio

Generally, the proportion of earnings paid out to the common stockholders as cash dividends.
More specifically, the firm's cash dividend divided by the firm's earnings in the same reporting period.

Refunded bond.

## Price/sales ratio (PS Ratio)

Determined by dividing current stock price by revenue per share (adjusted for stock splits).
Revenue per share for the P/S ratio is determined by dividing revenue for past 12 months by number of shares
outstanding.

## Private Export Funding Corporation (PEFCO)

Company that mobilizes private capital for financing the
export of big-ticket items by U.S. firms by purchasing at fixed interest rates the medium- to long-term debt
obligations of importers of U.S. products.

A strategy that involves buying a put option on the underlying security that is
held in a portfolio. Related: Hedge option strategies

## Purchase fund

Resembles a sinking fund except that money is used only to purchase bonds if they are selling
below their par value.

## Pure index fund

A portfolio that is managed so as to perfectly replicate the performance of the market portfolio.

## Refundable

Eligible for refunding under the terms of indenture.

## Refunded bond

Also called a prerefunded bond, one that originally may have been issued as a general
obligation or revenue bond but that is now secured by an "escrow fund" consisting entirely of direct U.S.
government obligations that are sufficient for paying the bondholders.

## Refunding

The redemption of a bond with proceeds received from issuing lower-cost debt obligations
ranking equal to or superior to the debt to be redeemed.

## Regional fund

A mutual fund that invests in a specific geographical area overseas, such as Asia or Europe.

## Revenue fund

A fund accounting for all revenues from an enterprise financed by a municipal revenue bond.

## Sales charge

The fee charged by a mutual fund when purchasing shares, usually payable as a commission to
marketing agent, such as a financial advisor, who is thus compensated for his assistance to a purchaser. It
represents the difference, if any, between the share purchase price and the share net asset value.

## Sales forecast

A key input to a firm's financial planning process. External sales forecasts are based on
historical experience, statistical analysis, and consideration of various macroeconomic factors.

## Sales-type lease

An arrangement whereby a firm leases its own equipment, such as IBM leasing its own
computers, thereby competing with an independent leasing company.

## Single country fund

A mutual fund that invests in individual countries outside the United States.

## Sinking fund requirement

A condition included in some corporate bond indentures that requires the issuer to
retire a specified portion of debt each year. Any principal due at maturity is called the balloon maturity.

## Stopping curve refunding rate

A refunding rate that falls on the stopping curve.

## Surplus funds

Cash flow available after payment of taxes in the project.

The sale of an interest rate swap by one counterparty to the other, effectively ending the swap.

## Target payout ratio

A firm's long-run dividend-to-earnings ratio. The firm's policy is to attempt to pay out a
certain percentage of earnings, but it pays a stated dollar dividend and adjusts it to the target as base-line
increases in earnings occur.

## Term Fed Funds

Fed funds sold for a period of time longer than overnight.

## 12B-1 fees

The percent of a mutual fund's assets used to defray marketing and distribution expenses. The
amount of the fee is stated in the fund's prospectus. The SEC has recently proposed that 12B-1 fees in excess
of 0.25% be classed as a load. A true " no load" fund has neither a sales charge nor 12b-1 fee.

## 12b-1 funds

mutual funds that do not charge an upfront or back-end commission, but instead take out up to
1.25% of average daily fund assets each year to cover the costs of selling and marketing shares, an
arrangement allowed by the SEC's Rule 12b-I (passed in 1980).

## Two-fund separation theorem

The theoretical result that all investors will hold a combination of the riskfree
asset and the market portfolio.

## Underfunded pension plan

A pension plan that has a negative surplus (i.e., liabilities exceed assets).

## Unfunded debt

Debt maturing within one year (short-term debt). See: funded debt.

## NET SALES (revenue)

The amount sold after customersâ€™ returns, sales discounts, and other allowances are taken away from
gross sales. (Companies usually just show the net sales amount on their income statements, omitting returns, allowances, and the like.)