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Definition of Lead

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Payment of a financial obligation earlier than is expected or required.

Related Terms:

cost leadership strategy

a plan to achieve the position in a
competitive environment of being the low cost producer of
a product or provider of a service; it provides one method
of avoiding competition

Lead manager

The commercial or investment bank with the primary responsibility for organizing syndicated
bank credit or bond issue. The lead manager recruits additional lending or underwriting banks, negotiates
terms of the issue with the issuer, and assesses market conditions.

lead time

see cycle time

Leading economic indicators

Economic series that tend to rise or fall in advance of the rest of the economy.

Leading Indicator

A variable that reaches a turning point (a peak or a trough) before the economy reaches a turning point.

Advance material request

Very early orders for materials before the completion
of a product design, given the long lead times required to supply some items.

Aggressive Cost Capitalization

Cost capitalization that stretches the flexibility within generally
accepted accounting principles beyond its intended limits, resulting in reporting as assets
items that more reasonably should have been expensed. The purpose of this activity is likely to
alter financial results and financial position in order to create a potentially misleading impression
of a firm's business performance or financial position.

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asset turnover ratio

A broad-gauge ratio computed by dividing annual
sales revenue by total assets. It is a rough measure of the sales-generating
power of assets. The idea is that assets are used to make sales, and the
sales should lead to profit. The ultimate test is not sales revenue on
assets, but the profit earned on assets as measured by the return on
assets (ROA) ratio.

Beggar-thy-neighbor devaluation

A devaluation that is designed to cheapen a nation's currency and thereby
increase its exports at other countries' expense and reduce imports. Such devaluations often lead to trade wars.


A bank that ranks just below a lead manager in a syndicated Eurocredit or international bond
issue. Comanagers may assist the lead manger bank in the pricing and issue of the instrument.

confrontation strategy

an organizational strategy in which company management decides to confront, rather than avoid, competition; an organizational strategy in which company management still attempts to differentiate company
products through new features or to develop a price
leadership position by dropping prices, even though management
recognizes that competitors will rapidly bring out
similar products and match price changes; an organizational
strategy in which company management identifies
and exploits current opportunities for competitive advantage
in recognition of the fact that those opportunities will
soon be eliminated

continuous improvement

an ongoing process of enhancing employee task performance, level of product quality, and level of company service through eliminating nonvalue-added activities to reduce lead time, making products
(performing services) with zero defects, reducing
product costs on an ongoing basis, and simplifying products
and processes

Dual syndicate equity offering

An international equity placement where the offering is split into two
tranches - domestic and foreign - and each tranche is handled by a separate lead manager.

Free rider

A follower who avoids the cost and expense of finding the best course of action and by simply
mimicking the behavior of a leader who made these investments.

Full-Cost Method

A method of accounting for petroleum exploration and development expenditures
that permits capitalization of all such expenditures, including those leading to productive
as well as nonproductive wells.

Group of five (G5/G-5)

The five leading countries (France, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, and the U.S.) that
meet periodically to achieve some cooperative effort on international economic issues. When currency issues
are discussed, the monetary authorities of these nations hold the meeting.

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just-in-time manufacturing system

a production system that attempts to acquire components and produce inventory only as needed, to minimize product defects, and to
reduce lead/setup times for acquisition and production


Payment of a financial obligation later than is expected or required, as in lead and lag. Also, the number
of periods that an independent variable in a regression model is "held back" in order to predict the dependent

manufacturing cycle efficiency (MCE)

a ratio resulting from dividing the actual production time by total lead time;
reflects the proportion of lead time that is value-added

Measurement error

Errors in measuring an explanatory variable in a regression that leads to biases in
estimated parameters.

Moving-averages chart

A financial chart that plots leading and lagging
moving averages for prices or values of an asset.

order point

the level of inventory that triggers the placement
of an order for additional units; it is determined based
on usage, lead time, and safety stock

push system

the traditional production system in which
work centers may produce inventory that is not currently
needed because of lead time or economic production/
order requirements; it requires that excess inventory be
stored until needed


A quantitative analyst; someone who does numerical analysis of
financial information in order to detect relationships, disparities, or patterns
that can lead to making money.

safety stock

a buffer level of inventory kept on hand by a company in the event of fluctuating usage or unusual delays in lead time

SIMEX (Singapore International Monetary Exchange)

A leading futures and options exchange in Singapore.

Underwriting syndicate

A group of investment banks that work together to sell new security offerings to
investors. The underwriting syndicate is led by the lead underwriter. See also: lead underwriter.
Underwritten offering
A purchase and sale.







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