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Beggar-thy-neighbor devaluation

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Definition of Beggar-thy-neighbor devaluation

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Beggar-thy-neighbor devaluation

A devaluation that is designed to cheapen a nation's currency and thereby
increase its exports at other countries' expense and reduce imports. Such devaluations often lead to trade wars.



Related Terms:

Beggar-thy-neighbor

An international trade policy of competitive devaluations and increased protective
barriers where one country seeks to gain at the expense of its trading partners.


Devaluation A decrease in the spot price of the currency



Beggar-My-Neighbor Policy

A policy designed to increase an economy's prosperity at the expense of another country's prosperity.


Devaluation

Fall in the government-determined fixed exchange rate.


Arm's length price

The price at which a willing buyer and a willing unrelated seller would freely agree to
transact.



Asian currency units (ACUs)

Dollar deposits held in Singapore or other Asian centers.


Ask price

A dealer's price to sell a security; also called the offer price.


Beggar-thy-neighbor Devaluation Image 1

Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.


Basis price

price expressed in terms of yield to maturity or annual rate of return.


Bid price

This is the quoted bid, or the highest price an investor is willing to pay to buy a security. Practically
speaking, this is the available price at which an investor can sell shares of stock. Related: Ask , offer.


Blocked currency

A currency that is not freely convertible to other currencies due to exchange controls.


Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.


Call price

The price for which a bond can be repaid before maturity under a call provision.


Clean price

Bond price excluding accrued interest.


Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The CPI, as it is called, measures the prices of consumer goods and services and is a
measure of the pace of U.S. inflation. The U.S.Department of Labor publishes the CPI very month.


Conversion parity price

Related:Market conversion price


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Convertible price

The contractually specified price per share at which a convertible security can be
converted into shares of common stock.


Currency

Money.



Currency arbitrage

Taking advantage of divergences in exchange rates in different money markets by
buying a currency in one market and selling it in another market.


Currency basket

The value of a portfolio of specific amounts of individual currencies, used as the basis for
setting the market value of another currency. It is also referred to as a currency cocktail.


Currency future

A financial future contract for the delivery of a specified foreign currency.


Currency option

An option to buy or sell a foreign currency.


Currency risk

Related: Exchange rate risk


Currency risk sharing

An agreement by the parties to a transaction to share the currency risk associated with
the transaction. The arrangement involves a customized hedge contract embedded in the underlying
transaction.


Currency selection

Asset allocation in which the investor chooses among investments denominated in
different currencies.


Currency swap

An agreement to swap a series of specified payment obligations denominated in one currency
for a series of specified payment obligations denominated in a different currency.


Delivery price

The price fixed by the Clearing house at which deliveries on futures are in invoiced; also the
price at which the futures contract is settled when deliveries are made.


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Dirty price

Bond price including accrued interest, i.e., the price paid by the bond buyer.



Dollar price of a bond

Percentage of face value at which a bond is quoted.


Dual-currency issues

Eurobonds that pay coupon interest in one currency but pay the principal in a different
currency.


Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.


Equilibrium market price of risk

The slope of the capital market line (CML). Since the CML represents the
return offered to compensate for a perceived level of risk, each point on the line is a balanced market
condition, or equilibrium. The slope of the line determines the additional return needed to compensate for a
unit change in risk.


Eurocurrency deposit

A short-term fixed rate time deposit denominated in a currency other than the local
currency (i.e. US$ deposited in a London bank).


Eurocurrency market

The money market for borrowing and lending currencies that are held in the form of
deposits in banks located outside the countries of the currencies issued as legal tender.


European Currency Unit (ECU)

An index of foreign exchange consisting of about 10 European currencies,
originally devised in 1979.


Exercise price

The price at which the underlying future or options contract may be bought or sold.


Fair market price

Amount at which an asset would change hands between two parties, both having
knowledge of the relevant facts. Also referred to as market price.


Fair price

The equilibrium price for futures contracts. Also called the theoretical futures price, which equals
the spot price continuously compounded at the cost of carry rate for some time interval.


Fair price provision

See:appraisal rights.


Fixed price basis

An offering of securities at a fixed price.


Fixed-price tender offer

A one-time offer to purchase a stated number of shares at a stated fixed price,
usually a premium to the current market price.


Flat price risk

Taking a position either long or short that does not involve spreading.


Flat price (also clean price)

The quoted newspaper price of a bond that does not include accrued interest.
The price paid by purchaser is the full price.


Foreign currency

Foreign money.


Foreign currency option

An option that conveys the right to buy or sell a specified amount of foreign
currency at a specified price within a specified time period.


Foreign currency translation

The process of restating foreign currency accounts of subsidiaries into the
reporting currency of the parent company in order to prepare consolidated financial statements.


Full price

Also called dirty price, the price of a bond including accrued interest. Related: flat price.


Futures price

The price at which the parties to a futures contract agree to transact on the settlement date.


Hard currency

A freely convertible currency that is not expected to depreciate in value in the foreseeable future.


High price

The highest (intraday) price of a stock over the past 52 weeks, adjusted for any stock splits.


Invoice price

The price that the buyer of a futures contract must pay the seller when a Treasury Bond is delivered.


Law of one price

An economic rule stating that a given security must have the same price regardless of the
means by which one goes about creating that security. This implies that if the payoff of a security can be
synthetically created by a package of other securities, the price of the package and the price of the security
whose payoff it replicates must be equal.


Limit price

Maximum price fluctuation
Limitation on asset dispositions A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to sell major
assets.


Low price

This is the day's lowest price of a security that has changed hands between a buyer and a seller.


Low price-earnings ratio effect

The tendency of portfolios of stocks with a low price-earnings ratio to
outperform portfolios consisting of stocks with a high price-earnings ratio.


Limit price

Maximum price fluctuation


Market conversion price

Also called conversion parity price, the price that an investor effectively pays for
common stock by purchasing a convertible security and then exercising the conversion option. This price is
equal to the market price of the convertible security divided by the conversion ratio.


Market price of risk

A measure of the extra return, or risk premium, that investors demand to bear risk. The
reward-to-risk ratio of the market portfolio.


Market prices

The amount of money that a willing buyer pays to acquire something from a willing seller,
when a buyer and seller are independent and when such an exchange is motivated by only commercial
consideration.


Marketplace price efficiency

The degree to which the prices of assets reflect the available marketplace
information. Marketplace price efficiency is sometimes estimated as the difficulty faced by active
management of earning a greater return than passive management would, after adjusting for the risk
associated with a strategy and the transactions costs associated with implementing a strategy.


Maximum price fluctuation

The maximum amount the contract price can change, up or down, during one
trading session, as fixed by exchange rules in the contract specification. Related: limit price.


Minimum price fluctuation

Smallest increment of price movement possible in trading a given contract. Also
called point or tick. The zero-beta portfolio with the least risk.


Multicurrency clause

Such a clause on a Euro loan permits the borrower to switch from one currency to
another currency on a rollover date.


Multicurrency loans

Give the borrower the possibility of drawing a loan in different currencies.


Nominal price

price quotations on futures for a period in which no actual trading took place.


Opening price

The range of prices at which the first bids and offers were made or first transactions were
completed.


Option price

Also called the option premium, the price paid by the buyer of the options contract for the right
to buy or sell a security at a specified price in the future.


Price/book ratio

Compares a stock's market value to the value of total assets less total liabilities (book
value). Determined by dividing current stock price by common stockholder equity per share (book value),
adjusted for stock splits. Also called Market-to-Book.


Price/earnings ratio (PE ratio)

Shows the "multiple" of earnings at which a stock sells. Determined by dividing current
stock price by current earnings per share (adjusted for stock splits). Earnings per share for the P/E ratio is
determined by dividing earnings for past 12 months by the number of common shares outstanding. Higher
"multiple" means investors have higher expectations for future growth, and have bid up the stock's price.


Price/sales ratio (PS Ratio)

Determined by dividing current stock price by revenue per share (adjusted for stock splits).
Revenue per share for the P/S ratio is determined by dividing revenue for past 12 months by number of shares
outstanding.


Price compression

The limitation of the price appreciation potential for a callable bond in a declining interest
rate environment, based on the expectation that the bond will be redeemed at the call price.


Price discovery process

The process of determining the prices of the assets in the marketplace through the
interactions of buyers and sellers.


Price elasticities

The percentage change in the quantity divided by the percentage change in the price.


Price impact costs

Related: market impact costs


Price momentum

Related: Relative strength


Price persistence

Related: Relative strength


Price risk

The risk that the value of a security (or a portfolio) will decline in the future. Or, a type of
mortgage-pipeline risk created in the production segment when loan terms are set for the borrower in advance
of terms being set for secondary market sale. If the general level of rates rises during the production cycle, the
lender may have to sell his originated loans at a discount.


Price takers

Individuals who respond to rates and prices by acting as though they have no influence on them.


Priced out

The market has already incorporated information, such as a low dividend, into the price of a stock.


Price value of a basis point (PVBP)

Also called the dollar value of a basis point, a measure of the change in
the price of the bond if the required yield changes by one basis point.


Prices

price of a share of common stock on the date shown. Highs and lows are based on the highest and
lowest intraday trading price.


Price-specie-flow mechanism

Adjustment mechanism under the classical gold standard whereby
disturbances in the price level in one country would be wholly or partly offset by a countervailing flow of
specie (gold coins) that would act to equalize prices across countries and automatically bring international
payments back in balance.


Price-volume relationship

A relationship espoused by some technical analysts that signals continuing rises
and falls in security prices based on accompanying changes in volume traded.


Put price

The price at which the asset will be sold if a put option is exercised. Also called the strike or
exercise price of a put option.


Reporting currency

The currency in which the parent firm prepares its own financial statements; that is, U.S.
dollars for a U.S. company.


Reserve currency

A foreign currency held by a central bank or monetary authority for the purposes of
exchange intervention and the settlement of inter-governmental claims.


Reverse price risk

A type of mortgage-pipeline risk that occurs when a lender commits to sell loans to an
investor at rates prevailing at application but sets the note rates when the borrowers close. The lender is thus
exposed to the risk of falling rates.


Settlement price

A figure determined by the closing range which is used to calculate gains and losses in
futures market accounts. Settlement prices are used to determine gains, losses, margin calls, and invoice
prices for deliveries. Related: closing range.


Soft currency

A currency that is expected to drop in value relative to other currencies.


Spot exchange rates

Exchange rate on currency for immediate delivery. Related: forward exchange rate.


Spot futures parity theorem

Describes the theoretically correct relationship between spot and futures prices.
Violation of the parity relationship gives rise to arbitrage opportunities.


Spot interest rate

Interest rate fixed today on a loan that is made today. Related: forward interest rates.


Spot lending

The origination of mortgages by processing applications taken directly from prospective borrowers.


Spot markets

Related: cash markets


Spot month

The nearest delivery month on a futures contract.


Spot price

The current marketprice of the actual physical commodity. Also called cash price.


Spot rate

The theoretical yield on a zero-coupon Treasury security.


Spot rate curve

The graphical depiction of the relationship between the spot rates and maturity.


Spot trade

The purchase and sale of a foreign currency, commodity, or other item for immediate delivery.


Stated conversion price

At the time of issuance of a convertible security, the price the issuer effectively
grants the security holder to purchase the common stock, equal to the par value of the convertible security
divided by the conversion ratio.


Strike price

The stated price per share for which underlying stock may be purchased (in the case of a call) or
sold (in the case of a put) by the option holder upon exercise of the option contract.


Subscription price

price that the existing shareholders are allowed to pay for a share of stock in a rights offering.


Theoretical futures price

Also called the fair price, the equilibrium futures price.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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