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Lapse subsidized

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Definition of Lapse subsidized

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Lapse subsidized

This refers to the practice of some life insurance companies to offer policies which are lower in price because they have assumed a high probability that the policies will be cashed in by their owners for one reason or another before the death benefit becomes available. It is a bold and risky offer by the insurance company because sometimes the purchasers of these policies simply don't lapse them.



Related Terms:

Lapse

This refers to the termination of an insurance policy due to the owner of the policy failing to pay the premium within the grace period [Usually within 30 days after the last regular premium was required and not paid]. It is possible to re-instate the coverage with the same premium and benefits intact but the life insured will have to qualify for this coverage all over again and bring up to date all unpaid premiums.


Lapse

Termination when a policy has no cash value after all attempts at conservation have failed.


Lapses

Policies which are sold but do not remain in force because the policyholder fails to pay premiums.


45-Degree Line

A line representing equilibrium in the goods and services market, on a diagram with aggregate demand on the vertical axis and aggregate supply on the horizontal axis.


Abandonment option

The option of terminating an investment earlier than originally planned.



Abnormal returns

Part of the return that is not due to systematic influences (market wide influences). In
other words, abnormal returns are above those predicted by the market movement alone. related: excess
returns.


Absolute Right of Return

Goods may be returned to the seller by the purchaser without restrictions.


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Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.


Accelerated depreciation

Any depreciation method that produces larger deductions for depreciation in the
early years of a project's life. Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS), which is a depreciation schedule
allowed for tax purposes, is one such example.


accelerated depreciation

(1) The estimated useful life of the fixed asset being depreciated is
shorter than a realistic forecast of its probable actual service life;
(2) more of the total cost of the fixed asset is allocated to the first
half of its useful life than to the second half (i.e., there is a
front-end loading of depreciation expense).


Accelerated depreciation

Any of several methods that recognize an increased amount
of depreciation in the earliest years of asset usage. this results in increased tax benefits
in the first few years of asset usage.


Accidental Death and Dismemberment

coverage that provides a lump-sum payment to you or your survivors if an accident results in the loss of a limb, paralysis or your death.


Accidental Death Benefit (ADB)

coverage against accidental death Usually payable in addition to base amount of coverage.


Accidental Dismemberment: (Credit Insurance)

Provides additional financial security should an insured person be dismembered or lose the use of a limb as the result of an accident.


Accomodating Policy

A monetary policy of matching wage and price increases with money supply increases so that the real money supply does not fall and push the economy into recession.


Account Value

The sum of all the interest options in your policy, including interest.


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Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Release (AAER)

Administrative proceedings or litigation releases that entail an accounting or auditing-related violation of the securities laws.


Accounting exposure

The change in the value of a firm's foreign currency denominated accounts due to a
change in exchange rates.



Accounting Irregularities

Intentional misstatements or omissions of amounts or disclosures in
financial statements done to deceive financial statement users. The term is used interchangeably with fraudulent financial reporting.


Accounting period

The period of time for which financial statements are produced – see also financial year.


Accounting Policies

The principles, bases, conventions, rules and procedures adopted by management in preparing and presenting financial statements.


Accounting rate of return (ARR)

A method of investment appraisal that measures
the profit generated as a percentage of the
investment – see return on investment.


accounting rate of return (ARR)

the rate of earnings obtained on the average capital investment over the life of a capital project; computed as average annual profits divided by average investment; not based on cash flow


Accounts payable

Money owed to suppliers.


ACCOUNTS PAYABLE

Amounts a company owes to creditors.


Accounts payable

Amounts owed by the company for goods and services that have been received, but have not yet been paid for. Usually Accounts payable involves the receipt of an invoice from the company providing the services or goods.


accounts payable

Short-term, non-interest-bearing liabilities of a business
that arise in the course of its activities and operations from purchases on
credit. A business buys many things on credit, whereby the purchase
cost of goods and services are not paid for immediately. this liability
account records the amounts owed for credit purchases that will be paid
in the short run, which generally means about one month.


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Accounts payable

Acurrent liability on the balance sheet, representing short-term obligations
to pay suppliers.



Accounts Payable

Amounts due to vendors for purchases on open account, that is, not evidenced
by a signed note.


Accounts Payable Days (A/P Days)

The number of days it would take to pay the ending balance
in accounts payable at the average rate of cost of goods sold per day. Calculated by dividing
accounts payable by cost of goods sold per day, which is cost of goods sold divided by 365.


Accounts receivable

Money owed by customers.


ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE

Amounts owed to a company by customers that it sold to on credit. Total accounts receivable are Usually reduced by an allowance for doubtful accounts.


Accounts receivable

Amounts owed to the company, generally for sales that it has made.


accounts receivable

Short-term, non-interest-bearing debts owed to a
business by its customers who bought goods and services from the business
on credit. Generally, these debts should be collected within a month
or so. In a balance sheet, this asset is listed immediately after cash.
(Actually the amount of short-term marketable investments, if the business
has any, is listed after cash and before accounts receivable.)
Accounts receivable are viewed as a near-cash type of asset that will be
turned into cash in the short run. A business may not collect all of its
accounts receivable. See also bad debts.


Accounts receivable

A current asset on the balance sheet, representing short-term
amounts due from customers who have purchased on account.


Accounts Receivable

Amounts due from customers for sales on open account, not evidenced
by a signed note.


Accounts Receivable

Money owed to a business for merchandise or services sold on open account.


Accounts Receivable Days (A/R Days)

The number of days it would take to collect the ending
balance in accounts receivable at the year's average rate of revenue per day. Calculated as
accounts receivable divided by revenue per day (revenue divided by 365).


Accounts receivable turnover

The ratio of net credit sales to average accounts receivable, a measure of how
quickly customers pay their bills.


accounts receivable turnover ratio

A ratio computed by dividing annual
sales revenue by the year-end balance of accounts receivable. Technically
speaking, to calculate this ratio the amount of annual credit sales should
be divided by the average accounts receivable balance, but this information
is not readily available from external financial statements. For
reporting internally to managers, this ratio should be refined and finetuned
to be as accurate as possible.


accretion

an increase in units or volume caused by the addition
of material or by factors inherent in the production process


Accretion (of a discount)

In portfolio accounting, a straight-line accumulation of capital gains on discount
bond in anticipation of receipt of par at maturity.


Accrued expenses payable

Expenses that have to be recorded in order for the financial statements to be accurate. Accrued expenses Usually do not involve the receipt of an invoice from the company providing the goods or services.


accrued expenses payable

The account that records the short-term, noninterest-
bearing liabilities of a business that accumulate over time, such
as vacation pay owed to employees. this liability is different than
accounts payable, which is the liability account for bills that have been
received by a business from purchases on credit.


Accrued interest

The accumulated coupon interest earned but not yet paid to the seller of a bond by the
buyer (unless the bond is in default).


Accrued Interest

The amount of interest accumulated on a debt security between
interest paying dates


Accrued Interest

The amount of interest owing but not paid.


Accumulated Benefit Obligation (ABO)

An approximate measure of the liability of a plan in the event of a
Termination at the date the calculation is performed. related: projected benefit obligation.


Accumulated depreciation

A contra-fixed asset account representing the portion of the cost of a fixed asset that has been previously charged to expense. Each fixed asset account will have its own associated accumulated depreciation account.


accumulated depreciation

A contra, or offset, account that is coupled
with the property, plant, and equipment asset account in which the original
costs of the long-term operating assets of a business are recorded.
The accumulated depreciation contra account accumulates the amount of
depreciation expense that is recorded period by period. So the balance in
this account is the cumulative amount of depreciation that has been
recorded since the assets were acquired. The balance in the accumulated
depreciation account is deducted from the original cost of the assets
recorded in the property, plant, and equipment asset account. The
remainder, called the book value of the assets, is the amount included on
the asset side of a business.


Accumulated depreciation

The sum total of all deprecation expense recognized to date
on a depreciable fixed asset.


Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income

Cumulative gains or losses reported in shareholders'
equity that arise from changes in the fair value of available-for-sale securities, from the
effects of changes in foreign-currency exchange rates on consolidated foreign-currency financial
statements, certain gains and losses on financial derivatives, and from adjustments for underfunded
pension plans.


Accumulated Value

An amount of money invested plus the interest earned on that money.


acid test ratio (also called the quick ratio)

The sum of cash, accounts receivable, and short-term marketable
investments (if any) is divided by
total current liabilities to compute this ratio. Suppose that the short-term
creditors were to pounce on a business and not agree to roll over the
debts owed to them by the business. In this rather extreme scenario, the
acid test ratio reveals whether its cash and near-cash assets are enough
to pay its short-term current liabilities. this ratio is an extreme test that
is not likely to be imposed on a business unless it is in financial straits.
this ratio is quite relevant when a business is in a liquidation situation
or bankruptcy proceedings.


Acquiree

A firm that is being acquired.


Acquirer

A firm or individual that is acquiring something.


Additional paid-in capital

Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with capital in excess of par.


Additional paid-in capital

Any payment received from investors for stock that exceeds
the par value of the stock.


additional paid-in capital

Difference between issue price and par value of stock. Also called capital surplus.


Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.


Adjusted Cash Flow Provided by Continuing Operations

cash flow provided by operating
activities adjusted to provide a more recurring, sustainable measure. Adjustments to reported cash
provided by operating activities are made to remove such nonrecurring cash items as: the operating
component of discontinued operations, income taxes on items classified as investing or financing activities, income tax benefits from nonqualified employee stock options, the cash effects of purchases and sales of trading securities for nonfinancial firms, capitalized expenditures, and other nonrecurring cash inflows and outflows.


Adjusted present value (APV)

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. this analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.


Advance material request

Very early orders for materials before the completion
of a product design, given the long lead times required to supply some items.


After-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income to net sales.


After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.


Aggregate Demand

Total quantity of goods and services demanded.


Aggregate Demand Curve

Combinations of the price level and income for which the goods and services market is in equilibrium, or for which both the goods and services market and the money market are in equilibrium.


Aggregate Expenditure Curve

Aggregate demand for goods and services drawn as a function of the level of national income.


Aggregate planning

A budgeting process using summary-level information to
derive various budget models, Usually at the product family level.


Aggregate Production Function

An equation determining aggregate output as a function of aggregate inputs such as labor and capital.


Aggregate Supply

Total quantity of goods and services supplied.


Aggregate Supply Curve

Combinations of price level and income for which the labor market is in equilibrium. The short-run aggregate supply curve incorporates information and price/wage inflexibilities in the labor market, whereas the long-run aggregate supply curve does not.


Aggregation

Process in corporate financial planning whereby the smaller investment proposals of each of the
firm's operational units are added up and in effect treated as a big picture.


Aggressive Accounting

A forceful and intentional choice and application of accounting principles
done in an effort to achieve desired results, typically higher current earnings, whether the practices followed are in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles or not. Aggressive
accounting practices are not alleged to be fraudulent until an administrative, civil, or criminal proceeding takes that step and alleges, in particular, that an intentional, material misstatement
has taken place in an effort to deceive financial statement readers.


Aggressive Capitalization Policies

Capitalizing and reporting as assets significant portions of
expenditures, the realization of which require unduly optimistic assumptions.


Aggressive Cost Capitalization

Cost capitalization that stretches the flexibility within generally
accepted accounting principles beyond its intended limits, resulting in reporting as assets
items that more reasonably should have been expensed. The purpose of this activity is likely to
alter financial results and financial position in order to create a potentially misleading impression
of a firm's business performance or financial position.


All equity rate

The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project and abstracts from the
effects of financing.


All-in cost

Total costs, explicit and implicit.


All or none

requirement that none of an order be executed unless all of it can be executed at the specified price.


All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.


allocate

assign based on the use of a cost driver, a cost predictor,
or an arbitrary method


allocation

the systematic assignment of an amount to a recipient
set of categories annuity a series of equal cash flows (either positive or negative) per period


Allocation

The process of storing costs in one account and shifting them to other
accounts, based on some relevant measure of activity.


Allocation base A measure of activity or volume such as labour

hours, machine hours or volume of production
used to apportion overheads to products and
services.


Allowance for bad debts

An offset to the accounts receivable balance, against which
bad debts are charged. The presence of this allowance allows one to avoid severe
changes in the period-to-period bad debt expense by expensing a steady amount to
the allowance account in every period, rather than writing off large bad debts to
expense on an infrequent basis.


Allowance for doubtful accounts

A contra account related to accounts receivable that represents the amounts that the company expects will not be collected.


Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

An estimate of the uncollectible portion of accounts receivable
that is subtracted from the gross amount of accounts receivable to arrive at the estimated collectible
amount.


Allowance method

A method of adjusting accounts receivable to the amount that is expected to be collected based on company experience.


American Depositary Receipts (ADRs)

Certificates issued by a U.S. depositary bank, representing foreign
shares held by the bank, Usually by a branch or correspondent in the country of issue. one ADR may
represent a portion of a foreign share, one share or a bundle of shares of a foreign corporation. If the ADR's
are "sponsored," the corporation provides financial information and other assistance to the bank and may
subsidize the administration of the ADRs. "Unsponsored" ADRs do not receive such assistance. ADRs carry
the same currency, political and economic risks as the underlying foreign share; the prices of the two, adjusted for the SDR/ordinary ratio, are kept essentially identical by arbitrage. American depositary shares(ADSs) are
a similar form of certification.


American shares

Securities certificates issued in the U.S. by a transfer agent acting on behalf of the foreign
issuer. The certificates represent claims to foreign equities.


Amortization (Credit Insurance)

refers to the reduction of debt by regular payments of interest and principal in order to pay off a loan by maturity.


Amortizing interest rate swap

Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates
rise (decline).


Analytical Review

The process of attempting to infer the presence of potential problems
through the analysis of ratios and other relationships, often over time.


Announcement date

date on which particular news concerning a given company is announced to the public.
Used in event studies, which researchers use to evaluate the economic impact of events of interest.


Annual Premium

Yearly amount payable by a client for a policy or component.


Annual report

Yearly record of a publicly held company's financial condition. It includes a description of the
firm's operations, its balance sheet and income statement. SEC rules require that it be distributed to all
shareholders. A more detailed version is called a 10-K.


Annual Report

The report required by the Stock Exchange for all listed companies, containing the company’s financial statements.


Annual report

A report issued to a company’s shareholders, creditors, and regulatory
organizations at the end of its fiscal year. It typically contains at least an income
statement, balance sheet, statement of cash flows, and accompanying footnotes. It
may also contain management comments, an audit report, and other supporting
schedules that may be required by regulatory organizations.


annual return

The fund return, for any 12-month period, including changes in unit value and the reinvestment of distributions, but not taking into account sales, redemption, distribution or other optional charges or income taxes payable by any unitholder that would reduce returns.


Annualized holding period return

The annual rate of return that when compounded t times, would have
given the same t-period holding return as actually occurred from period 1 to period t.


Annuity due

An annuity with n payments, wherein the first payment is made at time t = 0 and the last
payment is made at time t = n - 1.


Annuity Due

Annuity where the payments are to be made at the beginning of
each period


annuity due

a series of equal cash flows being received or paid at the beginning of a period



 

 

 

 

 

 

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