Definition of Journalizing
The process of taking a transaction and putting it into a form that allows it to be recorded in the accounting records.
The change in the value of a firm's foreign currency denominated accounts due to a
change in exchange rates.
Earnings of a firm as reported on its income statement.
Total liabilities exceed total assets. A firm with a negative net worth is insolvent on
The ease and quickness with which assets can be converted to cash.
Information that is known to some people but not to other people.
The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average
book value of the investment during its life.
A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in
Berkeley, Calif. It is commonly used by institutional investors applying performance attribution analysis to
evaluate their money managers' performances.
A transaction where exchange is immediate, as contrasted to a forward contract, which
calls for future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price.
The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s Performance Presentation Standards Implementation
Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise and update the AIMR Performance
Presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS(TM)) for portfolio performance presentations.
An undertaking either (1) to complete a project such that it meets certain specified
performance criteria on or before a certain specified date or (2) to repay project debt if the completion test
cannot be met.
The time that elapses between receipt of payment from a customer and the
depositing of the customer's check in the firm's bank account; the time required to process customer
A conception of the way a stock's price changes that assumes that the price takes on all
intermediate values. dirty price. Related: full price
The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.
Method used to determine a participant's benefits in a defined benefit plan by
multiplying months of service by a flat monthly benefit.
A method of selling a new issue of common stock in which the SEC declares the registration
statement effective on the basis of a price formula rather than on a specific range.
Generally Accepted Accounting Principals (GAAP)
A technical accounting term that encompasses the
conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted accounting practice at a particular time.
Publicly owned stock in a firm is replaced with complete equity ownership by a
private group. The shares are delisted from stock exchanges and can no longer be purchased in the open
Highly leveraged transaction (HLT)
Bank loan to a highly leveraged firm.
A situation involving information that is known to some, but not all, participants.
Information Coefficient (IC)
The correlation between predicted and actual stock returns, sometimes used to
measure the value of a financial analyst. An IC of 1.0 indicates a perfect linear relationship between predicted
and actual returns, while an IC of 0.0 indicates no linear relationship.
transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset.
Related: search costs.
Organizations that furnish investment and other types of information, such as
information that helps a firm monitor its cash position.
The rise in the stock price following the dividend signal.
The speed and accuracy with which prices reflect new information.
Trades that are the result of either a reallocation of wealth or an implementation of an
investment strategy that only utilizes existing information.
Trades in which an investor believes he or she possesses pertinent
information not currently reflected in the stock's price.
Relevant information about a company that has not yet been made public. It is illegal for
holders of this information to make trades based on it, however received.
transaction carried out between two units of the same corporation.
In-house processing float
Refers to the time it takes the receiver of a check to process the payment and
deposit it in a bank for collection.
Normal annuity form
The manner in which retirement benefits are paid out.
When a security is expected to appreciate at a rate faster than the overall market.
Performance attribution analysis
The decomposition of a money manager's performance results to explain
the reasons why those results were achieved. This analysis seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What
were the major sources of added value? (2) Was short-term factor timing statistically significant? (3) Was
market timing statistically significant? And (4), Was security selection statistically significant?
The evaluation of a manager's performance which involves, first, determining
whether the money manager added value by outperforming the established benchmark (performance
measurement) and, second, determining how the money manager achieved the calculated return (performance
The calculation of the return realized by a money manager over some time interval.
Shares of stock given to managers on the basis of performance as measured by earnings
per share and similar criteria. A control device used by shareholders to tie management to the self-interest of
Price discovery process
The process of determining the prices of the assets in the marketplace through the
interactions of buyers and sellers.
Pro forma capital structure analysis
A method of analyzing the impact of alternative capital structure
choices on a firm's credit statistics and reported financial results, especially to determine whether the firm will
be able to use projected tax shield benefits fully.
Pro forma financial statements
Financial statements as adjusted to reflect a projected or planned transaction.
Pro forma statement
A financial statement showing the forecast or projected operating results and balance
sheet, as in pro forma income statements, balance sheets, and statements of cash flows.
Method of accounting for a merger in which the acquirer is treated as having purchased
the assets and assumed liabilities of the acquiree, which are all written up or down to their respective fair
market values, the difference between the purchase price and the net assets acquired being attributed to goodwill.
Regulatory accounting procedures
accounting principals required by the FHLB that allow S&Ls to elect
annually to defer gains and losses on the sale of assets and amortize these deferrals over the average life of the
Round-trip transactions costs
Costs of completing a transaction, including commissions, market impact
costs, and taxes.
Semi-strong form efficiency
A form of pricing efficiency where the price of the security fully reflects all
public information (including, but not limited to, historical price and trading patterns). Compare weak form
efficiency and strong form efficiency.
Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 8
This is a currency translation standard previously in
use by U.S. accounting firms. See: Statement of accounting Standards No. 52.
Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 52
This is the currency translation standard currently
used by U.S. firms. It mandates the use of the current rate method. See: Statement of Financial accounting
Standards No. 8.
Pricing efficiency, where the price of a, security reflects all information, whether or
not it is publicly available. Related: Weak form efficiency, semi strong form efficiency
Structured arbitrage transaction
A self-funding, self-hedged series of transactions that usually utilize
mortgage securities as the primary assets.
Taking a view
A London expression for forming an opinion as to where market prices are headed and acting on it.
Refers to the buyer's actually assuming possession from the seller of the asset agreed upon
in a forward contract or a futures contract.
Tax Reform Act of 1986
A 1986 law involving a major overhaul of the U.S. tax code.
Any transaction that is not tax-free to the parties involved, such as a taxable acquisition.
Risk to a firm with known future cash flows in a foreign currency that arises from
possible changes in the exchange rate. Related:translation exposure.
The time, effort, and money necessary, including such things as commission fees and the
cost of physically moving the asset from seller to buyer. Related: Round-trip transaction costs, Information
costs, search costs.
A loan extended by a bank for a specific purpose. In contrast, lines of credit and revolving
credit agreements involve loans that can be used for various purposes.
Transaction demand (for money)
The need to accommodate a firm's expected cash transactions.
A desire to hold cash for the purpose of conducting cash based transactions.
When a security is expected to appreciate at a slower rate than the overall market.
Unit benefit formula
Method used to determine a participant's benefits in a defined benefit plan by
multiplying years of service by the percentage of salary.
Weak form efficiency
A form of pricing efficiency where the price of the security reflects the past price and
trading history of the security. In such a market, security prices follow a random walk. Related: Semistrong
form efficiency, strong form efficiency.
A collection of systems and processes used to record, report and interpret business transactions.
The representation of the double-entry system of accounting such that assets are equal to liabilities plus capital.
The period of time for which financial statements are produced – see also financial year.
Accounting rate of return (ARR)
A method of investment appraisal that measures
the profit generated as a percentage of the
investment – see return on investment.
A set of accounts that summarize the transactions of a business that have been recorded on source documents.
A method of accounting in which profit is calculated as the difference between income when it is earned and expenses when they are incurred.
A method of accounting in which profit is calculated as the difference between income
when it is received and expenses when they are paid.
The production of financial statements, primarily for those interested parties who are external to the business.
The production of financial and non-financial information used in planning for the future; making decisions about products, services, prices and what costs to incur; and ensuring that plans are implemented and achieved.
A method of costing for continuous manufacture in which costs for an accounting compared are compared with production for the same period to determine a cost per unit produced.
Strategic management accounting
The provision and analysis of management accounting data about a business and its competitors, which is of use in the development and monitoring of strategy (Simmonds).
The financial description of a business event.
The formula Assets = Liabilities + Equity.
A broad, all-inclusive term that refers to the methods and procedures
of financial record keeping by a business (or any entity); it also
refers to the main functions and purposes of record keeping, which are
to assist in the operations of the entity, to provide necessary information
to managers for making decisions and exercising control, to measure
profit, to comply with income and other tax laws, and to prepare financial
An equation that reflects the two-sided nature of a
business entity, assets on the one side and the sources of assets on the
other side (assets = liabilities + owners’ equity). The assets of a business
entity are subject to two types of claims that arise from its two basic
sources of capital—liabilities and owners’ equity. The accounting equation
is the foundation for double-entry bookkeeping, which uses a
scheme for recording changes in these basic types of accounts as either
debits or credits such that the total of accounts with debit balances
equals the total of accounts with credit balances. The accounting equation
also serves as the framework for the statement of financial condition,
or balance sheet, which is one of the three fundamental financial
statements reported by a business.
Well, frankly, accrual is not a good descriptive
term. Perhaps the best way to begin is to mention that accrual-basis
accounting is much more than cash-basis accounting. Recording only the
cash receipts and cash disbursement of a business would be grossly
inadequate. A business has many assets other than cash, as well as
many liabilities, that must be recorded. Measuring profit for a period as
the difference between cash inflows from sales and cash outflows for
expenses would be wrong, and in fact is not allowed for most businesses
by the income tax law. For management, income tax, and financial
reporting purposes, a business needs a comprehensive record-keeping
system—one that recognizes, records, and reports all the assets and liabilities
of a business. This all-inclusive scope of financial record keeping
is referred to as accrual-basis accounting. Accrual-basis accounting
records sales revenue when sales are made (though cash is received
before or after the sales) and records expenses when costs are incurred
(though cash is paid before or after expenses are recorded). Established
financial reporting standards require that profit for a period
must be recorded using accrual-basis accounting methods. Also, these
authoritative standards require that in reporting its financial condition a
business must use accrual-basis accounting.
See accrual-basis accounting.
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)
This important term
refers to the body of authoritative rules for measuring profit and preparing
financial statements that are included in financial reports by a business
to its outside shareowners and lenders. The development of these
guidelines has been evolving for more than 70 years. Congress passed a
law in 1934 that bestowed primary jurisdiction over financial reporting
by publicly owned businesses to the Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC). But the SEC has largely left the development of GAAP to the
private sector. Presently, the Financial accounting Standards Board is
the primary (but not the only) authoritative body that makes pronouncements
on GAAP. One caution: GAAP are like a movable feast. New rules
are issued fairly frequently, old rules are amended from time to time,
and some rules established years ago are discarded on occasion. Professional
accountants have a heck of time keeping up with GAAP, that’s for
sure. Also, new GAAP rules sometimes have the effect of closing the barn
door after the horse has left. accounting abuses occur, and only then,
after the damage has been done, are new rules issued to prevent such
abuses in the future.
internal accounting controls
Refers to forms used and procedures
established by a business—beyond what would be required for the
record-keeping function of accounting—that are designed to prevent
errors and fraud. Two examples of internal controls are (1) requiring a
second signature by someone higher in the organization to approve a
transaction in excess of a certain dollar amount and (2) giving customers
printed receipts as proof of sale. Other examples of internal
control procedures are restricting entry and exit routes of employees,
requiring all employees to take their vacations and assigning another
person to do their jobs while they are away, surveillance cameras, surprise
counts of cash and inventory, and rotation of duties. Internal controls
should be cost-effective; the cost of a control should be less than
the potential loss that is prevented. The guiding principle for designing
internal accounting controls is to deter and detect errors and dishonesty.
The best internal controls in the world cannot prevent most fraud
by high-level managers who take advantage of their positions of trust
accounting rate of return (ARR)
the rate of earnings obtained on the average capital investment over the life of a capital project; computed as average annual profits divided by average investment; not based on cash flow
business process reengineering (BPR)
the process of combining information technology to create new and more effective
business processes to lower costs, eliminate unnecessary
work, upgrade customer service, and increase
speed to market
a discipline that focuses on techniques or
methods for determining the cost of a project, process, or
thing through direct measurement, arbitrary assignment, or
systematic and rational allocation
Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB)
a body established by Congress in 1970 to promulgate cost accounting
standards for defense contractors and federal agencies; disbanded
in 1980 and reestablished in 1988; it previously issued
pronouncements still carry the weight of law for those
organizations within its jurisdiction
cost-benefit analysis the analytical process of comparing the
relative costs and benefits that result from a specific course
of action (such as providing information or investing in a
FIFO method (of process costing)
the method of cost assignment that computes an average cost per equivalent
unit of production for the current period; keeps beginning
inventory units and costs separate from current period production
a discipline in which historical, monetary
transactions are analyzed and recorded for use in the
preparation of the financial statements (balance sheet, income
statement, statement of owners’/stockholders’ equity,
and statement of cash flows); it focuses primarily on the
needs of external users (stockholders, creditors, and regulatory
bits of knowledge or fact that have been carefully
chosen from a body of data and arranged in a meaningful way
a manufacturing process that simultaneously
produces more than one product line
joint product one of the primary outputs of a joint process;
each joint product individually has substantial revenuegenerating
a discipline that includes almost
all manipulations of financial information for use by managers
in performing their organizational functions and in
assuring the proper use and handling of an entity’s resources;
it includes the discipline of cost accounting
Management Accounting Guidelines (MAGs)
pronouncements of the Society of Management Accountants of
Canada that advocate appropriate practices for specific
management accounting situations
management information system (MIS)
a structure of interrelated elements that collects, organizes, and communicates
data to managers so they may plan, control, evaluate
performance, and make decisions; the emphasis of the
MIS is on internal demands for information rather than external
demands; some or all of the MIS may be computerized
for ease of access to information, reliability of input
and processing, and ability to simulate outcomes of
material requisition form
a source document that indicates
the types and quantities of material to be placed into production
or used in performing a service; it causes materials
and its cost to be released from the Raw Material Inventory
warehouse and sent to Work in process Inventory
modified FIFO method (of process costing)
the method of cost assignment that uses FIFO to compute a cost per
equivalent unit but, in transferring units from a department,
the costs of the beginning inventory units and the
units started and completed are combined and averaged
the ability of a worker to monitor
and operate several (or all) machines in a manufacturing
cell or perform all steps of a specific task
an entity’s legal nature (for example,
sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation)
the process of determining the degree
of success in accomplishing a task; it equates to both
effectiveness and efficiency
performance management system
a system reflecting the entire package of decisions regarding performance measurement and evaluation
benchmarking that focuses on practices and how the best-in-class companies achieved their results
an assessment about the number of processes through which a product flows
process costing system
a method of accumulating and assigning costs to units of production in companies producing large quantities of homogeneous products;
it accumulates costs by cost component in each production department and assigns costs to units using equivalent units of production
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