Financial Terms Guaranteed Interest Annuity (GIA)

Definition of Guaranteed Interest Annuity (GIA)

Guaranteed Interest Annuity (GIA)

interest bearing investment with fixed rate and term.

Related Terms:

the present value of a finite stream of cash flows for every beginning \$1 of cash flow.

fractional interest discount

the combined discounts for lack of control and marketability. g the constant growth rate in cash flows or net income used in the ADF, Gordon model, or present value factor.

Accrued interest

The accumulated coupon interest earned but not yet paid to the seller of a bond by the
buyer (unless the bond is in default).

Amortizing interest rate swap

Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates
rise (decline).

Annuity

A regular periodic payment made by an insurance company to a policyholder for a specified period
of time.

Annuity due

An annuity with n payments, wherein the first payment is made at time t = 0 and the last
payment is made at time t = n - 1.

Annuity factor

Present value of \$1 paid for each of t periods.

Annuity in arrears

An annuity with a first payment on full period hence, rather than immediately.

Base interest rate

Related: Benchmark interest rate.

Benchmark interest rate

Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will
demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a
comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").

Best-interests-of-creditors test

The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization
must receive at least as much as he would have if the debtor were liquidated.

Capitalized interest

interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then
amortized through the income statement over time.

Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.

Compound interest

interest paid on previously earned interest as well as on the principal.

Covered interest arbitrage

A portfolio manager invests dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign
currency and hedges his resulting foreign exchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for
dollars.

Deferred nominal life annuity

A monthly fixed-dollar payment beginning at retirement age. It is nominal
because the payment is fixed in dollar amount at any particular time, up to and including retirement.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.

Effective annual interest rate

An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of
compounding.

Equilibrium rate of interest

The interest rate that clears the market. Also called the market-clearing interest
rate.

Equivalent annual annuity

The equivalent amount per year for some number of years that has a present
value equal to a given amount.

Forward interest rate

interest rate fixed today on a loan to be made at some future date.

GMCs (guaranteed mortgage certificates)

First issued by Freddie Mac in 1975, GMCs, like PCs, represent
undivided interest in specified conventional whole loans and participations previously purchased by Freddie Mac.

Gross interest

interest earned before taxes are deducted.

Guaranteed insurance contract

A contract promising a stated nominal interest rate over some specific time
period, usually several years.

Guaranteed investment contract (GIC)

A pure investment product in which a life company agrees, for a
single premium, to pay the principal amount of a predetermined annual crediting (interest) rate over the life of
the investment, all of which is paid at the maturity date.

Interest

The price paid for borrowing money. It is expressed as a percentage rate over a period of time and
reflects the rate of exchange of present consumption for future consumption. Also, a share or title in property.

Interest coverage ratio

The ratio of the earnings before interest and taxes to the annual interest expense. This
ratio measures a firm's ability to pay interest.

Interest coverage test

A debt limitation that prohibits the issuance of additional long-term debt if the issuer's
interest coverage would, as a result of the issue, fall below some specified minimum.

Interest equalization tax

Tax on foreign investment by residents of the U.S. which was abolished in 1974.

Interest payments

Contractual debt payments based on the coupon rate of interest and the principal amount.

Interest on interest

interest earned on reinvestment of each interest payment on money invested.
See: compound interest.

Interest-only strip (IO)

A security based solely on the interest payments form a pool of mortgages, Treasury
bonds, or other bonds. Once the principal on the mortgages or bonds has been repaid, interest payments stop
and the value of the IO falls to zero.

Interest rate agreement

An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the
other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined
level (the strike rate).

Interest rate cap

Also called an interest rate ceiling, an interest rate agreement in which payments are made
when the reference rate exceeds the strike rate.

Interest rate ceiling

Related: interest rate cap.

Interest rate floor

An interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate falls
below the strike rate.

Interest rate on debt

The firm's cost of debt capital.

Interest rate parity theorem

interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the difference
between the forward foreign exchange rate and the spot rate.

Interest rate risk

The risk that a security's value changes due to a change in interest rates. For example, a
bond's price drops as interest rates rise. For a depository institution, also called funding risk, the risk that
spread income will suffer because of a change in interest rates.

Interest rate swap

A binding agreement between counterparties to exchange periodic interest payments on
some predetermined dollar principal, which is called the notional principal amount. For example, one party
will pay fixed and receive variable.

Interest subsidy

A firm's deduction of the interest payments on its debt from its earnings before it calculates
its tax bill under current tax law.

Interest tax shield

The reduction in income taxes that results from the tax-deductibility of interest payments.

Nominal interest rate

The interest rate unadjusted for inflation.

Normal annuity form

The manner in which retirement benefits are paid out.

Open interest

The total number of derivative contracts traded that not yet been liquidated either by an
offsetting derivative transaction or by delivery. Related: liquidation

Pooling of interests

An accounting method for reporting acquisitions accomplished through the use of equity.
The combined assets of the merged entity are consolidated using book value, as opposed to the purchase
method, which uses market value. The merging entities' financial results are combined as though the two
entities have always been a single entity.

RAMs (Reverse-annuity mortgages)

Mortgages in which the bank makes a loan for an amount equal to a
percentage of the appraisal value of the home. The loan is then paid to the homeowner in the form of an
annuity.

Rate of interest

The rate, as a proportion of the principal, at which interest is computed.

Real interest rate

The rate of interest excluding the effect of inflation; that is, the rate that is earned in terms
of constant-purchasing-power dollars. interest rate expressed in terms of real goods, i.e. nominal interest rate

Short interest

This is the total number of shares of a security that investors have borrowed, then sold in the
hope that the security will fall in value. An investor then buys back the shares and pockets the difference as profit.

Simple interest

interest calculated only on the initial investment. Related:compound interest.

An insurance policy bought by the sponsor of a pension plan for a single
premium. In return, the insurance company agrees to make lifelong payments to the employee (the
policyholder) when that employee retires.

Spot interest rate

interest rate fixed today on a loan that is made today. Related: forward interest rates.

Stated annual interest rate

The interest rate expressed as a per annum percentage, by which interest
payment is determined.

Times-interest-earned ratio

Earnings before interest and tax, divided by interest payments.

True interest cost

For a security such as commercial paper that is sold on a discount basis, the coupon rate
required to provide an identical return assuming a coupon-bearing instrument of like maturity that pays
interest in arrears.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

The operating profit before deducting interest and tax.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

The operating profit before deducting interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.

Interest

The cost of money, received on investments or paid on borrowings.

See EBIT.

Interest income

Income that a company receives in the form of interest, usually as the result of keeping money in interest-bearing accounts at financial institutions and the lending of money to other companies.

Interest payable

The amount of interest that is owed but has not been paid at the end of a period.

earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT)

A measure of profit that
equals sales revenue for the period minus cost-of-goods-sold expense
and all operating expensesâ€”but before deducting interest and income
tax expenses. It is a measure of the operating profit of a business before
considering the cost of its debt capital and income tax.

times interest earned

A ratio that tests the ability of a business to make
interest payments on its debt, which is calculated by dividing annual
earnings before interest and income tax by the interest expense for the
year. There is no particular rule for this ratio, such as 3 or 4 times, but
obviously the ratio should be higher than 1.

Accrued Interest

The amount of interest accumulated on a debt security between
interest paying dates

Annuity

A series of payments or deposits of equal size spaced evenly over
a specified period of time

Annuity Due

annuity where the payments are to be made at the beginning of
each period

Compound Interest

interest paid on principal and on interest earned in previous
periods

Effective Interest Rate

The rate of interest actually earned on an investment. It is
calculated as the ratio of the total amount of interest actually
earned for one year divided by the amount of the principal.

Nominal Interest Rate

The rate of interest quoted, or stated, to be paid on a security

Ordinary Annuity

An annuity where the payments are made at the end of each
period

Real Interest Rate

The rate of interest paid on an investment adjusted for inflation

Simple Interest

interest paid only on the principal; calculated by multiplying the
interest rate by the principal

Times Interest Earned Ratio

A measure of how well a company is able to meet its interest
payments based on the cash generated by its operations. It is
calculated by dividing the earnings before interest and taxes by the
total interest charges incurred by the firm.

annuity due

a series of equal cash flows being received or paid at the beginning of a period

compound interest

a method of determining interest in which interest that was earned in prior periods is added to the original investment so that, in each successive period, interest is earned on both principal and interest

ordinary annuity

a series of equal cash flows being received
or paid at the end of a period

simple interest

a method of determining interest in which interest is earned only on the original investment (or principal) amount

Annuity

A series of payments over a period of time. The payments are usually
in equal amounts and usually at regular intervals such as quarterly,
semi-annually, or annually.

Interest

The cost of funds loaned to an entity. It can also refer to the equity ownership
of an investor in a business entity.

Pooling of interests

An method for accounting for a business combination. When used, the expenses of the combination are charged against income at once, and the net
income of the acquired company is added to the full-year reported results of the acquiring company.

annuity

Equally spaced level stream of cash flows.

annuity due

Level stream of cash flows starting immediately.

annuity factor

Present value of an annuity of \$1 per period.

compound interest

interest earned on interest.

effective annual interest rate

interest rate that is annualized using compound interest.

interest rate parity

Theory that forward premium equals interest rate differential.

interest tax shield

Tax savings resulting from deductibility of interest payments.

nominal interest rate

Rate at which money invested grows.

real interest rate

Rate at which the purchasing power of an investment increases.

simple interest

interest earned only on the original investment; no interest is earned on interest.

Interest Rate Differential

The interest rate on our financial assets minus the interest rate on a foreign country's financial assets.

Interest Rate, Nominal

Payment for the use of borrowed funds, measured as a percentage per year of these funds.

Interest Rate Parity

Theory that real interest rates are approximately the same across countries except for a risk premium.

Interest Rate, Real

Nominal interest rate less expected inflation.

Money Rate of Interest

See interest rate, nominal.

Real Rate of Interest

See interest rate, real.

Term Structure of Interest Rates

Relationship among interest rates on bonds with different terms to maturity.

Individual Retirement Annuity

An IRA comprised of an annuity that is managed
through and paid out by a life insurance company.