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Definition of Go public

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Go public

The process of offering a company’s shares for sale to the public through an
initial public offering.



Related Terms:

algorithm

a logical step-by-step problem-solving technique
(generally requiring the use of a computer) that continuously
searches for an improved solution from the one previously
computed until the best answer is determined


Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)

A not-for-profit corporation owned by its members. Its primary
functions are to provide a location for trading futures and options, collect and disseminate market information,
maintain a clearing mechanism and enforce trading rules.


Contango

A market condition in which futures prices are higher in the distant delivery months.


cost of goods manufactured (CGM)

the total cost of the
goods completed and transferred to Finished goods Inventory
during the period


Cost of goods sold

The cost of merchandise that a company sold this year. For manufacturing companies, the cost of raw
materials, components, labor and other things that went into producing an item.



Cost of goods sold

See cost of sales.


Cost of goods sold

The cost of the items that were sold during the current period.


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Cost of goods sold

The accumulated total of all costs used to create a product or service,
which is then sold. These costs fall into the general sub-categories of direct
labor, materials, and overhead.


Cost of goods sold

The charge to expense of the direct materials, direct labor, and
allocated overhead costs associated with products sold during a defined accounting
period.


Finished goods inventory

goods that have been completed by the manufacturing
process, or purchased in a complete form, but which have not yet been sold to
customers.


Finished goods inventory

Completed inventory items ready for shipment to
customers.


Go-around

When the Fed offers to buy securities, to sell securities, to do repo, or to do reverses, it solicits
competitive bids or offers from all primary dealers.


goal

a desired abstract achievement


goal congruence

a circumstance in which the personal and
organizational goals of decision makers throughout a firm
are consistent and mutually supportive


Going-private transactions

publicly owned stock in a firm is replaced with complete equity ownership by a
private group. The shares are delisted from stock exchanges and can no longer be purchased in the open
markets.


Gold exchange standard

A system of fixing exchange rates adopted in the Bretton Woods agreement. It
involved the U.S. pegging the dollar to gold and other countries pegging their currencies to the dollar.


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Gold standard

An international monetary system in which currencies are defined in terms of their gold
content and payment imbalances between countries are settled in gold. It was in effect from about 1870-1914.


Gold Standard

A fixed exchange rate system in which a currency is directly convertible into gold.



Golden parachute

Compensation paid to top-level management by a target firm if a takeover occurs.


golden parachute

a benefits package that is triggered by the
termination of a manager’s employment


Good delivery

A delivery in which everything - endorsement, any necessary attached legal papers, etc. - is in
order.


Good delivery and settlement procedures

Refers to PSA Uniform Practices such as cutoff times on delivery
of securities and notification, allocation, and proper endorsement.


Good 'til canceled

Sometimes simply called "GTC", it means an order to buy or sell stock that is good until
you cancel it. Brokerages usually set a limit of 30-60 days, at which the GTC expires if not restated.


Goodhart's Law

Whatever measure of the money supply is chosen for application of the monetarist rule will soon begin to misbehave.


Goodwill

Excess of the purchase price over the fair market value of the net assets acquired under purchase
accounting.


Goodwill

The excess of the price paid to buy another company over the book value of
its assets and the increase in cost of its fixed assets to fair market value.


Goodwill

Intangible assets of a firm established by the excess of the price paid for the going concern over the value of its assets.


Gordon model

present value of a perpetuity with growth.
The end-ofyear gordon model formula is: 1/(r - g)
and the midyear formula is: SQRT(1 + r)/(r - g).



Government bond

See: government securities.


Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)

A wholly owned U.S. government corporation
within the Department of Housing & Urban Development. Ginnie Mae guarantees the timely payment of
principal and interest on securities issued by approved servicers that are collateralized by FHA-issued, VAguaranteed,
or Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)-guaranteed mortgages.


Government securities

Negotiable U.S. Treasury securities.


Government sponsored enterprises

Privately owned, publicly chartered entities, such as the Student Loan
Marketing Association, created by Congress to reduce the cost of capital for certain borrowing sectors of the
economy including farmers, homeowners, and students.


Initial Public Offering

A firms first offering of its shares to the investment public, after registration requirements of the various securities regulators have been met.


Initial public offering (IPO)

A company's first sale of stock to the public. Securities offered in an IPO are
often, but not always, those of young, small companies seeking outside equity capital and a public market for
their stock. Investors purchasing stock in IPOs generally must be prepared to accept very large risks for the
possibility of large gains. IPO's by investment companies (closed-end funds) usually contain underwriting
fees which represent a load to buyers.


initial public offering (IPO)

First offering of stock to the general public.


Intermediate Good

A good used in producing another good.


Monetary gold

gold held by governmental authorities as a financial asset.


Negative goodwill

A term used to describe a situation in which a business combination
results in the fair market value of all assets purchased being more than the purchase
price.


Negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW)

Demand deposits that pay interest.


Negotiated certificate of deposit

A large-denomination CD, generally $1MM or more, that can be sold but
cannot be cashed in before maturity.


Negotiated markets

Markets in which each transaction is separately negotiated between buyer and seller (i.e.
an investor and a dealer).


Negotiated offering

An offering of securities for which the terms, including underwriters' compensation,
have been negotiated between the issuer and the underwriters.


Negotiated sale

Situation in which the terms of an offering are determined by negotiation between the issuer
and the underwriter rather than through competitive bidding by underwriting groups.


negotiated transfer price

an intracompany charge for goods
or services set through a process of negotiation between
the selling and purchasing unit managers


Open (good-til-cancelled) order

An individual investor can place an order to buy or sell a security. That
open order stays active until it is completed or the investor cancels it.


present value of growth opportunities (PVGO)

Net present value of a firm’s future investments.


Public Debt

See national debt.


Public offering

The sale of registered securities by the issuer (or the underwriters acting in the interests of the
issuer) in the public market. Also called public issue.


Public offering

The sale of new securities to the investing public.


Public Oversight Board

An independent private-sector body that oversees the audit practices
of certified public accountants who work with SEC-regulated companies.


Public Securities Administration (PSA)

The trade association for primary dealers in U.S. government
securities, including MBSs.


Public warehouse

Warehouse operated by an independent warehouse company on its own premises.


Publicly Held National Debt

See national debt.


Publicly traded assets

Assets that can be traded in a public market, such as the stock market.


Realizable Revenue A revenue transaction where assets received in exchange for goods and

services are readily convertible into known amounts of cash or claims to cash.


substitute good

an item that can replace another item to satisfy the same wants or needs


Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of 1936

A federal Act that forces government contractors to comply with the government’s minimum wage and hour rules.


Beneficiary

This is the person who benefits from the terms of a trust, a will, an RRSP, a RRIF, a LIF, an annuity or a life insurance policy. In relation to RRSP's, RRIF's, LIF's, Annuities and of course life insurance, if the beneficiary is a spouse, parent, offspring or grand-child, they are considered to be a preferred beneficiary. If the insured has named a preferred beneficiary, the death benefit is invariably protected from creditors. There have been some court challenges of this right of protection but so far they have been unsuccessful. See "Creditor Protection" below. A beneficiary under the age of 18 must be represented by an individual guardian over the age of 18 or a public official who represents minors generally. A policy owner may, in the designation of a beneficiary, appoint someone to act as trustee for a minor. Death benefits are not subject to income taxes. If you make your beneficiary your estate, the death benefit will be included in your assets for probate. Probate filing fees are currently $14 per thousand of estate value in British Columbia and $15 per thousand of estate value in Ontario.
Another way to avoid probate fees or creditor claims against life insurance proceeds is for the insured person to designate and register with his/her insurance company's head office an irrevocable beneficiary. By making such a designation, the insured gives up the right to make any changes to his/her policy without the consent of the irrevocable beneficiary. Because of the seriousness of the implications, an irrevocable designation should only be made for good reason and where the insured fully understands the consequences.
NoteA successful challenge of the rules relating to beneficiaries was concluded in an Ontario court in 1996. The Insurance Act says its provisions relating to beneficiaries are made "notwithstanding the Succession Law Reform Act." There are two relevent provisions of the Succession Law Reform Act. One section of the act gives a judge the power to make any order concerning an estate if the deceased person has failed to provide for a dependant. Another section says money from a life insurance policy can be considered part of the estate if an order is made to support a dependant. In the case in question, the deceased had attempted to deceive his lawful dependents by making his common-law-spouse the beneficiary of an insurance policy which by court order was supposed to name his ex-spouse and children as beneficiaries.


CBOE

Chicago Board Options Exchange. A securities exchange created in the early 1970s for the public
trading of standardized option contracts.


financial reports and statements

Financial means having to do with
money and economic wealth. Statement means a formal presentation.
Financial reports are printed and a copy is sent to each owner and each
major lender of the business. Most public corporations make their financial
reports available on a web site, so all or part of the financial report
can be downloaded by anyone. Businesses prepare three primary financial
statements: the statement of financial condition, or balance sheet;
the statement of cash flows; and the income statement. These three key
financial statements constitute the core of the periodic financial reports
that are distributed outside a business to its shareowners and lenders.
Financial reports also include footnotes to the financial statements and
much other information. Financial statements are prepared according to
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), which are the authoritative
rules that govern the measurement of net income and the reporting
of profit-making activities, financial condition, and cash flows.
Internal financial statements, although based on the same profit
accounting methods, report more information to managers for decision
making and control. Sometimes, financial statements are called simply
financials.


generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)

This important term
refers to the body of authoritative rules for measuring profit and preparing
financial statements that are included in financial reports by a business
to its outside shareowners and lenders. The development of these
guidelines has been evolving for more than 70 years. Congress passed a
law in 1934 that bestowed primary jurisdiction over financial reporting
by publicly owned businesses to the Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC). But the SEC has largely left the development of GAAP to the
private sector. Presently, the Financial Accounting Standards Board is
the primary (but not the only) authoritative body that makes pronouncements
on GAAP. One caution: GAAP are like a movable feast. New rules
are issued fairly frequently, old rules are amended from time to time,
and some rules established years ago are discarded on occasion. Professional
accountants have a heck of time keeping up with GAAP, that’s for
sure. Also, new GAAP rules sometimes have the effect of closing the barn
door after the horse has left. Accounting abuses occur, and only then,
after the damage has been done, are new rules issued to prevent such
abuses in the future.


Mezzanine

Stage of a company's development just prior to going public, in Venture Capital language. Venture capitalists entering at that point have a lower risk of loss than at previous stages and can look forward to early capital appreciation as a result of the Market Value gained by an Initial public Offering.


National Debt

The debt owed by the government as a result of earlier borrowing to finance budget deficits. That part of the debt not held by the central bank is the publically held national debt.


National Saving

Private saving plus public saving. That part of national income which is not spent on consumption goods or government spending.


Secondary Market

New security issues are first sold directly to the public by the issuing firm or the government. After this initial sale, the owners of the securities can trade them among themselves or others; such activity is said to take place on the secondary market.


Securitization

The process of creating a passthrough, such as the mortgage pass-through security, by which
the pooled assets become standard securities backed by those assets. Also, refers to the replacement of
nonmarketable loans and/or cash flows provided by financial intermediaries with negotiable securities issued
in the public capital markets.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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