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Definition of Free Trade

Free Trade Image 1

Free Trade

The absence of any government restrictions, such as tariffs or quotas, on imports or exports.



Related Terms:

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

an agreement among Canada, Mexico, and the United States establishing the North American free trade Zone, with a resulting reduction in trade barriers


NAFTA

North American free trade Agreement, negotiated in 1992 to extend the Canada/U.S. free trade Agreement to include Mexico.


Arbitrage-free option-pricing models

Yield curve option-pricing models.


Balance of Merchandise Trade

The difference between exports and imports of goods.


Balance of trade

Net flow of goods (exports minus imports) between countries.



Balance of Trade

See balance of merchandise trade.


Basket trades

Related: Program trades.


Free Trade Image 2

Block trade

A large trading order, defined on the New York Stock Exchange as an order that consists of
10,000 shares of a given stock or a total market value of $200,000 or more.


Counter trade

The exchange of goods for other goods rather than for cash; barter.


Flat trades

1) A bond in default trades flat; that is, the price quoted covers both principal and unpaid,
accrued interest.
2) Any security that trades without accrued interest or at a price that includes accrued
interest is said to trade flat.


Floor trader

A member who generally trades only for his own account, for an account controlled by him or
who has such a trade made for him. Also referred to as a "local".


Forward trade

A transaction in which the settlement will occur on a specified date in the future at a price
agreed upon the trade date.


free cash flow

Generally speaking, this term refers to cash flow from
profit (cash flow from operating activities, to use the more formal term).
The underlying idea is that a business is free to do what it wants with its
cash flow from profit. However, a business usually has many ongoing
commitments and demands on this cash flow, so it may not actually be
free to decide what do with this source of cash. Warning: This term is
not officially defined anywhere and different persons use the term to
mean different things. Pay particular attention to how an author or
speaker is using the term.


Free Cash Flow

The funds available for distribution to the capital providers of the
company after investments inside the company have been made


Free cash flows

Cash not required for operations or for reinvestment. Often defined as earnings before
interest (often obtained from operating income line on the income statement) less capital expenditures less the
change in working capital.


Free float

An exchange rate system characterized by the absence of government intervention. Also known as
clean float.


Free Trade Image 3

Free on board

Implies that distributive services like transport and handling performed on goods up to the
customs frontier of the economy from which the goods are classed as merchandise.


Free-on-Board (FOB) Destination

A shipping arrangement agreed to between buyer and
seller where title to the goods sold passes when the goods in question reach their destination.
When goods are shipped FOB destination, revenue is properly recognized when the goods reach
their destination.



Free-on-Board (FOB) Shipping Point

A shipping arrangement agreed to between buyer and
seller where title to the goods sold passes when the goods in question are delivered to a common
carrier. When goods are shipped FOB shipping point, revenue is properly recognized when the
goods are delivered to the common carrier.


Free reserves

Excess reserves minus member bank borrowings at the Fed.


Free rider

A follower who avoids the cost and expense of finding the best course of action and by simply
mimicking the behavior of a leader who made these investments.


Information-motivated trades

trades in which an investor believes he or she possesses pertinent
information not currently reflected in the stock's price.


Informationless trades

trades that are the result of either a reallocation of wealth or an implementation of an
investment strategy that only utilizes existing information.


Posttrade benchmarks

Prices after the decision to trade.


Pre-trade benchmarks

Prices occurring before or at the decision to trade.


Program trades

Also called basket trades, orders requiring the execution of trades in a large number of
different stocks at as near the same time as possible. Related: block trade


Publicly traded assets

Assets that can be traded in a public market, such as the stock market.


Free Trade Image 4

Registered trader

A member of the exchange who executes frequent trades for his or her own account.



Reversing trade

Entering the opposite side of a currently held futures position to close out the position.


Risk-free asset

An asset whose future return is known today with certainty.


Risk-free rate

The rate earned on a riskless asset.


Risk-free Rate

The rate of return on an investment with known future benefits; a
riskless rate of return, often estimated using the return earned on
short-term U.S. Treasury securities


Risk-Free Rate

The rate of return obtainable on government of Canada treasury bills.


Riskless or risk-free asset

An asset whose future return is known today with certainty. The risk free asset is
commonly defined as short-term obligations of the U.S. government.


Spot trade

The purchase and sale of a foreign currency, commodity, or other item for immediate delivery.


Tax free acquisition

A merger or consolidation in which 1) the acquirer's tax basis in each asset whose
ownership is transferred in the transaction is generally the same as the acquiree's, and 2) each seller who
receives only stock does not have to pay any tax on the gain he realizes until the shares are sold.


Terms of trade

The weighted average of a nation's export prices relative to its import prices.


Terms of Trade

The quantity of imports that can be obtained for a unit of exports, measured by the ratio of an export price index to an import price index.


Thinly traded

Infrequently traded.


Trade

A verbal (or electronic) transaction involving one party buying a security from another party. Once a
trade is consummated, it is considered "done" or final. Settlement occurs 1-5 business days later.


Trade acceptance

Written demand that has been accepted by an industrial company to pay a given sum at a future date.
Related: banker's acceptance.


Trade credit

Credit granted by a firm to another firm for the purchase of goods or services.


Trade date

In an interest rate swap, the date that the counterparties commit to the swap. Also, the date on
which a trade occurs. trades generally settle (are paid for) 1-5 business days after a trade date. With stocks,
settlement is generally 3 business days after the trade.


Trade debt

Accounts payable.


Trade Deficit

Deficit on the balance of merchandise trade.


Trade draft

A draft addressed to a commercial enterprise. See:draft.


Trade house

A firm which deals in actual commodities.


Trade Loading

A term used for channel stuffing in the domestic tobacco industry.


trade-off theory

Debt levels are chosen to balance interest tax shields against the costs of financial distress.


Trade on top of

trade at a narrow or no spread in basis points relative to some other bond yield, usually
Treasury bonds.


Traders

Persons who take positions in securities and their derivatives with the objective of making profits.
traders can make markets by trading the flow. When they do that, their objective is to earn the bid/ask spread.
traders can also be of the sort who take proprietary positions whereby they seek to profit from the directional
movement of prices or spread positions.


Uptick trade

Related:Tick-test rules


World Trade Organization (WTO)

the arbiter of global trade that was created in 1995 under the General Agreement on Tariffs and trade; each signatory country has one
vote in trade disputes


GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and trade, an organization in which the world's countries have sought to negotiate agreements creating freer international trade.


maquiladora

a business (typically U.S.-owned on the Mexican
side of the United States-Mexico border) that exists
under a special trade agreement in which foreign companies
import materials into Mexico duty-free for assembly,
then export the goods back out of Mexico, and only pay
duty on the value added to inventory in the process


Perfectly competitive financial markets

Markets in which no trader has the power to change the price of
goods or services. Perfect capital markets are characterized by the following conditions: 1) trading is costless,
and access to the financial markets is free, 2) information about borrowing and lending opportunities is freely
available, 3) there are many traders, and no single trader can have a significant impact on market prices.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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