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Definition of Financial future

Financial Future Image 1

Financial future

A contract entered into now that provides for the delivery of a specified asset in exchange
for the selling price at some specified future date.



Related Terms:

London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
as well as futures-style options are traded.


London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.


Future-Oriented Financial Information

Information about prospective results of operations, financial position and/or changes in financial position, based on assumptions about future economic conditions and courses of action. future-oriented financial information is presented as either a forecast or a projection.


Currency future

A financial future contract for the delivery of a specified foreign currency.


Financial plan

A financial blueprint for the financial future of a firm.



Changes in Financial Position

Sources of funds internally provided from operations that alter a company's
cash flow position: depreciation, deferred taxes, other sources, and capital expenditures.


chief financial officer (CFO)

Officer who oversees the treasurer and controller and sets overall financial strategy.


Financial Future Image 2

Corporate financial management

The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.


Corporate financial planning

financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both
long- and short-term financial plans.


costs of financial distress

Costs arising from bankruptcy or distorted business decisions before bankruptcy.


Country financial risk

The ability of the national economy to generate enough foreign exchange to meet
payments of interest and principal on its foreign debt.


Deferred futures

The most distant months of a futures contract. A bond that sells at a discount and does not
pay interest for an initial period, typically from three to seven years. Compare step-up bond and payment-inkind
bond.


Dupont system of financial control

Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
of the profit margin and asset turnover.


Expected future cash flows

Projected future cash flows associated with an asset of decision.


Expected future return

The return that is expected to be earned on an asset in the future. Also called the
expected return.


External Financial Statements

Corporate financial statements that have been reported on by an external independent accountant.


Financial accounting

The production of financial statements, primarily for those interested parties who are external to the business.


financial accounting

a discipline in which historical, monetary
transactions are analyzed and recorded for use in the
preparation of the financial statements (balance sheet, income
statement, statement of owners’/stockholders’ equity,
and statement of cash flows); it focuses primarily on the
needs of external users (stockholders, creditors, and regulatory
agencies)



Financial analysts

Also called securities analysts and investment analysts, professionals who analyze
financial statements, interview corporate executives, and attend trade shows, in order to write reports
recommending either purchasing, selling, or holding various stocks.


Financial assets

Claims on real assets.


financial assets

Claims to the income generated by real assets. Also called securities.


Financial Assistance

Economic assistance provided by unrelated third parties, typically government agencies. They may take the form of loans, loan guarantees, subsidies, tax allowances, contributions, or cost-sharing arrangements.


financial budget

a plan that aggregates monetary details
from the operating budgets; includes the cash and capital
budgets of a company as well as the pro forma financial
statements


Financial control

The management of a firm's costs and expenses in order to control them in relation to
budgeted amounts.


Financial Covenant

A feature of a debt or credit agreement that is designed to protect the lender or creditor. It is common to characterize covenants as either positive or negative covenants.
A positive covenant might require that the debtor maintain a minimum amount of working capital.
A negative covenant might limit dividend payments that may be made.


Financial Covenants

A promise made related to financial conditions or events. Often a promise not to allow certain balance sheet items or ratios to fall below an agreed level. Usually found in loan documents, as a protection mechanism.


Financial distress

Events preceding and including bankruptcy, such as violation of loan contracts.


Financial distress costs

Legal and administrative costs of liquidation or reorganization. Also includes
implied costs associated with impaired ability to do business (indirect costs).



Financial engineering

Combining or dividing existing instruments to create new financial products.


financial incentive

a monetary reward provided for performance
above targeted objectives


Financial Incentive

An expression of economic benefit that motivates behavior that might otherwise not take place.


Financial intermediaries

Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
traders.


financial intermediary

Firm that raises money from many small investors and provides financing to businesses or other
organizations by investing in their securities.


Financial Intermediary

Any institution, such as a bank, that takes deposits from savers and loans them to borrowers.


Financial Intermediation

The process whereby financial intermediaries channel funds from lender/savers to borrower/spenders.


Financial lease

Long-term, non-cancelable lease.


Financial Lease

Lease in which the service provided by the lessor to the lessee is limited to financing equipment. All other responsibilities related to the possession of equipment, such as maintenance, insurance, and taxes, are borne by the lessee. A financial lease is usually noncancellable and is fully paid out amortized over its term.


Financial leverage

Use of debt to increase the expected return on equity. financial leverage is measured by
the ratio of debt to debt plus equity.


financial leverage

The equity (ownership) capital of a business can serve
as the basis for securing debt capital (borrowing money). In this way, a
business increases the total capital available to invest in its assets and
can make more sales and more profit. The strategy is to earn operating
profit, or earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT), on the capital
supplied from debt that is more than the interest paid on the debt capital.
A financial leverage gain equals the EBIT earned on debt capital
minus the interest on the debt. A financial leverage gain augments earnings
on equity capital. A business must earn a rate of return on its assets
(ROA) that is greater than the interest rate on its debt to make a financial
leverage gain. If the spread between its ROA and interest rate is unfavorable,
a business suffers a financial leverage loss.


financial leverage

Debt financing amplifies the effects of changes in operating income on the returns to stockholders.


Financial leverage clientele

A group of investors who have a preference for investing in firms that adhere to
a particular financial leverage policy.


Financial leverage ratios

Related: capitalization ratios.


Financial market

An organized institutional structure or mechanism for creating and exchanging financial assets.


financial markets

Markets in which financial assets are traded.


Financial Numbers Game

The use of creative accounting practices to alter a financial statement
reader's impression of a firm's business performance.


Financial objectives

Objectives of a financial nature that the firm will strive to accomplish during the period
covered by its financial plan.


Financial planning

The process of evaluating the investing and financing options available to a firm. It
includes attempting to make optimal decisions, projecting the consequences of these decisions for the firm in
the form of a financial plan, and then comparing future performance against that plan.


Financial Position

Status of a firm's assets, liabilities, and equity accounts as of a certain time, as shown in its financial statement.


Financial press

That portion of the media devoted to reporting financial news.


Financial ratio

The result of dividing one financial statement item by another. Ratios help analysts interpret
financial statements by focussing on specific relationships.


financial reports and statements

financial means having to do with
money and economic wealth. Statement means a formal presentation.
financial reports are printed and a copy is sent to each owner and each
major lender of the business. Most public corporations make their financial
reports available on a web site, so all or part of the financial report
can be downloaded by anyone. Businesses prepare three primary financial
statements: the statement of financial condition, or balance sheet;
the statement of cash flows; and the income statement. These three key
financial statements constitute the core of the periodic financial reports
that are distributed outside a business to its shareowners and lenders.
financial reports also include footnotes to the financial statements and
much other information. financial statements are prepared according to
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), which are the authoritative
rules that govern the measurement of net income and the reporting
of profit-making activities, financial condition, and cash flows.
Internal financial statements, although based on the same profit
accounting methods, report more information to managers for decision
making and control. Sometimes, financial statements are called simply
financials.


Financial reports or statements

The Profit and Loss account, Balance Sheet and Cash Flow statement of a business.


Financial risk

The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will not be adequate to meet its financial obligations.
Also referred to as the additional risk that a firm's stockholder bears when the firm utilizes debt and equity.


financial risk

Risk to shareholders resulting from the use of debt.


financial slack

Ready access to cash or debt financing.


Financial Trend Analysis

Process of analyzing financial statements of a company for any continuing relationship.


Financial year

The accounting period adopted by a business for the production of its financial statements.
Finished goods Inventory that is ready for sale, either having been purchased as such or the result of a conversion from raw materials through a manufacturing process.


Fraudulent Financial Reporting

Intentional misstatements or omissions of amounts or disclosures
in financial statements done to deceive financial statement users. The term is used interchangeably
with accounting irregularities. A technical difference exists in that with fraud, it
must be shown that a reader of financial statements that contain intentional and material misstatements
must have used those financial statements to his or her detriment. In this book, accounting
practices are not alleged to be fraudulent until done so by an administrative, civil, or
criminal proceeding, such as that of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or a court.


Future

A term used to designate all contracts covering the sale of financial instruments or physical
commodities for future delivery on a commodity exchange.


Future investment opportunities

The options to identify additional, more valuable investment opportunities
in the future that result from a current opportunity or operation.


Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.


Future Value

The amount a given payment, or series of payments, will be worth
at the end of a specified time period, if invested at a given rate


future value

the amount to which one or more sums of
money invested at a specified interest rate will grow over
a specified number of time periods


Future value

The value that a sum of money (the present value) earning
compound interest will have in the future.


future value

Amount to which an investment will grow after earning interest.


Future Value

The amount to which a payment or series of payments will grow by a given future date when compounded by a given interest rate. FVIF future value interest factor.


Futures

A term used to designate all contracts covering the sale of financial instruments or physical
commodities for future delivery on a commodity exchange.


Futures commission merchant

A firm or person engaged in soliciting or accepting and handling orders for
the purchase or sale of futures contracts, subject to the rules of a futures exchange and, who, in connection
with such solicitation or acceptance of orders, accepts any money or securities to margin any resulting trades
or contracts. The FCM must be licensed by the CFTC. Related: commission house , omnibus account


Futures contract

Agreement to buy or sell a set number of shares of a specific stock in a designated future
month at a price agreed upon by the buyer and seller. The contracts themselves are often traded on the futures
market. A futures contract differs from an option because an option is the right to buy or sell, whereas a
futures contract is the promise to actually make a transaction. A future is part of a class of securities called
derivatives, so named because such securities derive their value from the worth of an underlying investment.


futures contract

Exchange-traded promise to buy or sell an asset in the future at a prespecified price.


Futures Contract

A contract in which the seller agrees to provide something to a buyer at a specified future date at an agreed price.


Futures contract multiple

A constant, set by an exchange, which when multiplied by the futures price gives
the dollar value of a stock index futures contract.


Futures market

A market in which contracts for future delivery of a commodity or a security are bought or sold.


Futures option

An option on a futures contract. Related: options on physicals.


Futures price

The price at which the parties to a futures contract agree to transact on the settlement date.


Long-term financial plan

financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.


Most distant futures contract

When several futures contracts are considered, the contract settling last.
Related: nearby futures contract


National Futures Association (NFA)

The futures industry self regulatory organization established in 1982.


Nearby futures contract

When several futures contracts are considered, the contract with the closest
settlement date is called the nearby futures contract. The next futures contract is the one that settles just after
the nearby futures contract. The contract farthest away in time from settlement is called the most distant
futures contract.


Net present value of future investments

The present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from
all of the firm's future investments.


Next futures contract

The contract settling immediately after the nearby futures contract.


Non-financial services

Include such things as freight, insurance, passenger services, and travel.


Notes to the financial statements

A detailed set of notes immediately following the financial statements in
an annual report that explain and expand on the information in the financial statements.


Perfectly competitive financial markets

Markets in which no trader has the power to change the price of
goods or services. Perfect capital markets are characterized by the following conditions: 1) trading is costless,
and access to the financial markets is free, 2) information about borrowing and lending opportunities is freely
available, 3) there are many traders, and no single trader can have a significant impact on market prices.


Pro forma financial statements

financial statements as adjusted to reflect a projected or planned transaction.


Published Financial

financial statements and financial information made public.


Restatement of Prior-Year Financial Statements

A recasting of prior-year financial statements to remove the effects of an error or other adjustment and report them on a new basis.


Short-term financial plan

A financial plan that covers the coming fiscal year.


Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT)

A dedicated computer network to support funds transfer messages internationally between over 900 member banks worldwide.


Spot futures parity theorem

Describes the theoretically correct relationship between spot and futures prices.
Violation of the parity relationship gives rise to arbitrage opportunities.


Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 52

This is the currency translation standard currently
used by U.S. firms. It mandates the use of the current rate method. See: Statement of financial Accounting
Standards No. 8.


Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 8

This is a currency translation standard previously in
use by U.S. accounting firms. See: Statement of Accounting Standards No. 52.


statement of financial condition

See balance sheet.


Theoretical futures price

Also called the fair price, the equilibrium futures price.


budget

a financial plan for the future based on a single level
of activity; the quantitative expression of a company’s commitment
to planned activities and resource acquisition and use


Capital

a) Physical capital: buildings, equipment, and any materials used to produce other goods and services in the future rather than being consumed today.
b) financial capital: funds available for acquiring real capital.
c) Human capital: the value of the education and experience that make people more productive.


Commodities Exchange Center (CEC)

The location of five New York futures exchanges: Commodity
Exchange, Inc. (COMEX), the New York Mercantile exchange (NYMEX), the New York Cotton Exchange,
the Coffee, Sugar and Cocoa exchange (CSC), and the New York futures exchange (NYFE). common size
statement A statement in which all items are expressed as a percentage of a base figure, useful for purposes of
analyzing trends and the changing relationship between financial statement items. For example, all items in
each year's income statement could be presented as a percentage of net sales.


Contract

A term of reference describing a unit of trading for a financial or commodity future. Also, the actual
bilateral agreement between the buyer and seller of a transaction as defined by an exchange.


Delivery

The tender and receipt of an actual commodity or financial instrument in settlement of a futures contract.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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