Financial Terms Expected future return

# Definition of Expected future return

## Expected future return

The return that is expected to be earned on an asset in the future. Also called the
expected return.

# Related Terms:

## Abnormal returns

Part of the return that is not due to systematic influences (market wide influences). In
other words, abnormal returns are above those predicted by the market movement alone. Related: excess
returns.

## Absolute Right of Return

Goods may be returned to the seller by the purchaser without restrictions.

## Accounting rate of return (ARR)

A method of investment appraisal that measures
the profit generated as a percentage of the
investment – see return on investment.

## accounting rate of return (ARR)

the rate of earnings obtained on the average capital investment over the life of a capital project; computed as average annual profits divided by average investment; not based on cash flow

## After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.

## annual return

The fund return, for any 12-month period, including changes in unit value and the reinvestment of distributions, but not taking into account sales, redemption, distribution or other optional charges or income taxes payable by any unitholder that would reduce returns.

## Annualized holding period return

The annual rate of return that when compounded t times, would have
given the same t-period holding return as actually occurred from period 1 to period t.

## Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return

Arithmetic mean return.

## Arithmetic mean return

An average of the subperiod returns, calculated by summing the subperiod returns
and dividing by he number of subperiods.

## Average accounting return

The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average
book value of the investment during its life.

## Average rate of return (ARR)

The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested.

## book rate of return

Accounting income divided by book value.
Also called accounting rate of return.

## Book Returns

Book yield is the investment income earned in a year on a portfolio of assets purchased over a number of years and at different interest rates, divided by the book value of those assets.

## CARs (cumulative abnormal returns)

a measure used in academic finance articles to measure the excess returns an investor would have received over a particular time period if he or she were invested in a particular stock.
This is typically used in control and takeover studies, where stockholders are paid a premium for being taken over. Starting some time period before the takeover (often five days before the first announced bid, but sometimes a longer period), the researchers calculate the actual daily stock returns for the target firm and subtract out the expected market returns (usually calculated using the firm’s beta and applying it to overall market movements during the time period under observation).
The excess actual return over the capital asset pricing model-determined expected return market is called an ‘‘abnormal return.’’ The cumulation of the daily abnormal returns over the time period under observation is the CAR. The term CAR(-5, 0) means the CAR calculated from five days before the
announcement to the day of announcement. The CAR(-1, 0) is a control premium, although Mergerstat generally uses the stock price five days before announcement rather than one day before announcement as the denominator in its control premium calculation. However, the CAR for any period other than (-1, 0) is not mathematically equivalent to a control premium.

## Cumulative abnormal return (CAR)

Sum of the differences between the expected return on a stock and the
actual return that comes from the release of news to the market.

## Currency future

A financial future contract for the delivery of a specified foreign currency.

## Deferred futures

The most distant months of a futures contract. A bond that sells at a discount and does not
pay interest for an initial period, typically from three to seven years. Compare step-up bond and payment-inkind
bond.

## Dollar return

The return realized on a portfolio for any evaluation period, including (1) the change in market
value of the portfolio and (2) any distributions made from the portfolio during that period.

## Dollar-weighted rate of return

Also called the internal rate of return, the interest rate that will make the
present value of the cash flows from all the subperiods in the evaluation period plus the terminal market value
of the portfolio equal to the initial market value of the portfolio.

## Ex post return

Related: Holding period return

## Exante return

The expected return of a portfolio based on the expected returns of its component assets and
their weights.

## Excess return on the market portfolio

The difference between the return on the market portfolio and the
riskless rate.

## Excess returns

Also called abnormal returns, returns in excess of those required by some asset pricing model.

## expected capacity

a short-run concept that represents the
anticipated level of capacity to be used by a firm in the
upcoming period, based on projected product demand

## Expected future cash flows

Projected future cash flows associated with an asset of decision.

## Expected return

The return expected on a risky asset based on a probability distribution for the possible rates
of return. expected return equals some risk free rate (generally the prevailing U.S. Treasury note or bond rate)
plus a risk premium (the difference between the historic market return, based upon a well diversified index
such as the S&P500 and historic U.S. Treasury bond) multiplied by the assets beta.

## Expected Return

The total amount of money (return) an investor anticipates to receive from an investment.

## Expected return-beta relationship

Implication of the CAPM that security risk premiums will be
proportional to beta.

## Expected return on investment

The return one can expect to earn on an investment. See: capital asset
pricing model.

## expected standard

standard set at a level that reflects what
is actually expected to occur in the future period; it anticipates
future waste and inefficiencies and allows for them;
is of limited value for control and performance evaluation purposes

## Expected value

The weighted average of a probability distribution.

## Expected Value

The value of the possible outcomes of a variable weighted by the
probabilities of each outcome

## Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.

## Financial future

A contract entered into now that provides for the delivery of a specified asset in exchange
for the selling price at some specified future date.

## Future

A term used to designate all contracts covering the sale of financial instruments or physical
commodities for future delivery on a commodity exchange.

## Future investment opportunities

The options to identify additional, more valuable investment opportunities
in the future that result from a current opportunity or operation.

## Future-Oriented Financial Information

Information about prospective results of operations, financial position and/or changes in financial position, based on assumptions about future economic conditions and courses of action. future-oriented financial information is presented as either a forecast or a projection.

## Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.

## Future Value

The amount a given payment, or series of payments, will be worth
at the end of a specified time period, if invested at a given rate

## future value

the amount to which one or more sums of
money invested at a specified interest rate will grow over
a specified number of time periods

## Future value

The value that a sum of money (the present value) earning
compound interest will have in the future.

## future value

Amount to which an investment will grow after earning interest.

## Future Value

The amount to which a payment or series of payments will grow by a given future date when compounded by a given interest rate. FVIF future value interest factor.

## Futures

A term used to designate all contracts covering the sale of financial instruments or physical
commodities for future delivery on a commodity exchange.

## Futures commission merchant

A firm or person engaged in soliciting or accepting and handling orders for
the purchase or sale of futures contracts, subject to the rules of a futures exchange and, who, in connection
with such solicitation or acceptance of orders, accepts any money or securities to margin any resulting trades
or contracts. The FCM must be licensed by the CFTC. Related: commission house , omnibus account

## Futures contract

Agreement to buy or sell a set number of shares of a specific stock in a designated future
month at a price agreed upon by the buyer and seller. The contracts themselves are often traded on the futures
market. A futures contract differs from an option because an option is the right to buy or sell, whereas a
futures contract is the promise to actually make a transaction. A future is part of a class of securities called
derivatives, so named because such securities derive their value from the worth of an underlying investment.

## futures contract

Exchange-traded promise to buy or sell an asset in the future at a prespecified price.

## Futures Contract

A contract in which the seller agrees to provide something to a buyer at a specified future date at an agreed price.

## Futures contract multiple

A constant, set by an exchange, which when multiplied by the futures price gives
the dollar value of a stock index futures contract.

## Futures market

A market in which contracts for future delivery of a commodity or a security are bought or sold.

## Futures option

An option on a futures contract. Related: options on physicals.

## Futures price

The price at which the parties to a futures contract agree to transact on the settlement date.

## Geometric mean return

Also called the time weighted rate of return, a measure of the compounded rate of
growth of the initial portfolio market value during the evaluation period, assuming that all cash distributions
are reinvested in the portfolio. It is computed by taking the geometric average of the portfolio subperiod
returns.

## Holding period return

The rate of return over a given period.

## Horizon return

Total return over a given horizon.

## Incremental internal rate of return

IRR on the incremental investment from choosing a large project

## Internal rate of return

Dollar-weighted rate of return. Discount rate at which net present value (NPV)
investment is zero. The rate at which a bond's future cash flows, discounted back to today, equals its price.

## Internal rate of return

a. The average annual yield earned by an investment during the period held.
b. The effective rate of interest on a loan.
c. The discount rate in discounted cash flow analysis.
d. The rate that adjusts the value of future cash receipts earned by an investment so that interest earned equals the original cost.
See Yield to maturity.

## Internal rate of return

The rate of return at which the present value of a series of future
cash flows equals the present value of all associated costs. This measure is most
commonly used in capital budgeting.

## Internal rate of return (IRR)

A discounted cash flow technique used for investment appraisal that calculates the effective cost of capital that produces a net present value of zero from a series of future cash flows and an
initial capital investment.

## internal rate of return (IRR)

The precise discount rate that makes the
present value (PV) of the future cash returns from a capital investment
exactly equal to the initial amount of capital invested. If IRR is higher
than the company’s cost-of-capital rate, the investment is an attractive
opportunity; if less, the investment is substandard from the cost-ofcapital
point of view.

## Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

The discount rate that equates the present value of the net cash
inflows with the present value of the net cash outflows
(investments). The IRR measures the profitability (rate of return) of
an investment in a project or security.

## internal rate of return (IRR)

the expected or actual rate of
return from a project based on, respectively, the assumed
or actual cash flows; the discount rate at which the net
present value of the cash flows equals zero

## internal rate of return (IRR)

Discount rate at which project NPV = 0.

## Inventory returns

Inventory returned from a customer for any reason. This receipt
is handled differently from a standard inventory receipt, typically into an inspection
area, from which it may be returned to stock, reworked, or scrapped.

## Leveraged required return

The required return on an investment when the investment is financed partially by debt.

## London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
as well as futures-style options are traded.

## London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.

## Market return

The return on the market portfolio.

## Money rate of return

Annual money return as a percentage of asset value.

## Most distant futures contract

When several futures contracts are considered, the contract settling last.
Related: nearby futures contract

## Multiple rates of return

More than one rate of return from the same project that make the net present value
of the project equal to zero. This situation arises when the IRR method is used for a project in which negative
cash flows follow positive cash flows. For each sign change in the cash flows, there is a rate of return.

## National Futures Association (NFA)

The futures industry self regulatory organization established in 1982.

## Nearby futures contract

When several futures contracts are considered, the contract with the closest
settlement date is called the nearby futures contract. The next futures contract is the one that settles just after
the nearby futures contract. The contract farthest away in time from settlement is called the most distant
futures contract.

## Net present value of future investments

The present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from
all of the firm's future investments.

## Next futures contract

The contract settling immediately after the nearby futures contract.

## Portfolio internal rate of return

The rate of return computed by first determining the cash flows for all the
bonds in the portfolio and then finding the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows
equal to the market value of the portfolio.

## Purchase returns

A contra account that reduces purchases by the amount of items purchased that were subsequently returned.

## rate of return

Total income per period per dollar invested.

## Rate of Return

return on invested capital (calculated as a percentage). Often an investor has, as one of their investment criteria, a minimum acceptable rate of return on an acquisition.

## RATE OF RETURN ON STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

The percentage return or profit that management made on each dollar stockholders invested in a company. Here’s how you figure it:
(Net income) / (Stockholders’ equity)

## RATE OF RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS

The percentage return or profit that management made on each dollar of assets. The formula is:
(Net income) / (Total assets)

## Rate of return ratios

Ratios that are designed to measure the profitability of the firm in relation to various
measures of the funds invested in the firm.

## Realized return

The return that is actually earned over a given time period.

## Required return

The minimum expected return you would require to be willing to purchase the asset, that is,
to make the investment.

## Return

The change in the value of a portfolio over an evaluation period, including any distributions made
from the portfolio during that period.

See yield.

## return of capital

the recovery of the original investment (or principal) in a project

## Return on assets (ROA)

Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12 months
by total average assets. Result is shown as a percentage. ROA can be decomposed into return on sales (net
income/sales) multiplied by asset utilization (sales/assets).

## return on assets (ROA)

Although there is no single uniform practice for
calculating this ratio, generally it equals operating profit (before interest
and income tax) for a year divided by the total assets that are used to
generate the profit. ROA is the key ratio to test whether a business is
earning enough on its assets to cover its cost of capital. ROA is used for
determining financial leverage gain (or loss).

## return on capital

income; it is equal to the rate of return multiplied by the amount of the investment

## Return on capital employed (ROCE)

The operating profit before interest and tax as a percentage of the total shareholders’ funds plus
the long-term debt of the business.

## Return on Common Equity Ratio

A measure of the percentage return earned on the value of the
common equity invested in the company. It is calculated by
dividing the net income available for distribution to shareholders
by the book value of the common equity.

## Return on equity (ROE)

Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12
months by common stockholder equity (adjusted for stock splits). Result is shown as a percentage. Investors
use ROE as a measure of how a company is using its money. ROE may be decomposed into return on assets
(ROA) multiplied by financial leverage (total assets/total equity).

## return on equity (ROE)

This key ratio, expressed as a percent, equals net
income for the year divided by owners’ equity. ROE should be higher than
a business’s interest rate on debt because the owners take more risk.

## return on investment

a ratio that relates income generated
by an investment center to the resources (or asset base)
used to produce that income

## Return on investment (ROI)

Generally, book income as a proportion of net book value.

## RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI)

In its most basic form, the rate of return equals net income divided by the amount of money invested. It can be applied to a particular product or piece of equipment, or to a business as a whole.

## Return on investment (ROI)

The net profit after tax as a percentage of the shareholders’ investment in the business.