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Definition of financial budget
a plan that aggregates monetary details
A method of budgeting that develops budgets based on expected activities and cost drivers – see also activity-based costing.
planning approach applying activity drivers to estimate the levels and costs of activities necessary to provide the budgeted quantity and
The multiplier associated with a change in government spending financed by an equal change in taxes.
A detailed schedule of financial activity, such as an advertising budget, a sales budget, or a capital budget.
A plan expressed in monetary terms covering a future period of time and based on a defined
a financial plan for the future based on a single level
A set of interlinked plans that quantitatively describe a company’s projected
The annual period over which budgets are prepared.
The amount by which government spending exceeds government revenues.
The excess of government spending over tax receipts.
a detailed set of documents that provides information
an intentional underestimation of revenues
the difference between total actual overhead
The process of ensuring that actual financial results are in line with targets – see variance
a planned expenditure
the process of formalizing plans and committing
A firm's set of planned capital expenditures.
management’s plan for investments in longterm
List of planned investment projects.
The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.
Refers generally to analysis procedures for ranking
The process of ranking and selecting investment alternatives and
a process of evaluating an entity’s proposed
The series of steps one follows when justifying the decision to purchase
capital budgeting decision
Decision as to which real assets the firm should acquire.
A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its
Changes in Financial Position
Sources of funds internally provided from operations that alter a company's
chief financial officer (CFO)
Officer who oversees the treasurer and controller and sets overall financial strategy.
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)
A federal Act
a process in which there is a rolling
Corporate financial management
The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
Corporate financial planning
financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both
costs of financial distress
Costs arising from bankruptcy or distorted business decisions before bankruptcy.
Country financial risk
The ability of the national economy to generate enough foreign exchange to meet
Dupont system of financial control
Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
External Financial Statements
Corporate financial statements that have been reported on by an external independent accountant.
The production of financial statements, primarily for those interested parties who are external to the business.
a discipline in which historical, monetary
Also called securities analysts and investment analysts, professionals who analyze
Claims on real assets.
Claims to the income generated by real assets. Also called securities.
Economic assistance provided by unrelated third parties, typically government agencies. They may take the form of loans, loan guarantees, subsidies, tax allowances, contributions, or cost-sharing arrangements.
The management of a firm's costs and expenses in order to control them in relation to
A feature of a debt or credit agreement that is designed to protect the lender or creditor. It is common to characterize covenants as either positive or negative covenants.
A promise made related to financial conditions or events. Often a promise not to allow certain balance sheet items or ratios to fall below an agreed level. Usually found in loan documents, as a protection mechanism.
Events preceding and including bankruptcy, such as violation of loan contracts.
Financial distress costs
Legal and administrative costs of liquidation or reorganization. Also includes
Combining or dividing existing instruments to create new financial products.
A contract entered into now that provides for the delivery of a specified asset in exchange
a monetary reward provided for performance
An expression of economic benefit that motivates behavior that might otherwise not take place.
Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
Firm that raises money from many small investors and provides financing to businesses or other
Any institution, such as a bank, that takes deposits from savers and loans them to borrowers.
The process whereby financial intermediaries channel funds from lender/savers to borrower/spenders.
Long-term, non-cancelable lease.
Lease in which the service provided by the lessor to the lessee is limited to financing equipment. All other responsibilities related to the possession of equipment, such as maintenance, insurance, and taxes, are borne by the lessee. A financial lease is usually noncancellable and is fully paid out amortized over its term.
Use of debt to increase the expected return on equity. financial leverage is measured by
The equity (ownership) capital of a business can serve
Debt financing amplifies the effects of changes in operating income on the returns to stockholders.
Financial leverage clientele
A group of investors who have a preference for investing in firms that adhere to
Financial leverage ratios
Related: capitalization ratios.
An organized institutional structure or mechanism for creating and exchanging financial assets.
Markets in which financial assets are traded.
Financial Numbers Game
The use of creative accounting practices to alter a financial statement
Objectives of a financial nature that the firm will strive to accomplish during the period
A financial blueprint for the financial future of a firm.
The process of evaluating the investing and financing options available to a firm. It
Status of a firm's assets, liabilities, and equity accounts as of a certain time, as shown in its financial statement.
That portion of the media devoted to reporting financial news.
The result of dividing one financial statement item by another. Ratios help analysts interpret
financial reports and statements
financial means having to do with
Financial reports or statements
The Profit and Loss account, Balance Sheet and Cash Flow statement of a business.
The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will not be adequate to meet its financial obligations.
Risk to shareholders resulting from the use of debt.
Ready access to cash or debt financing.
Financial Trend Analysis
Process of analyzing financial statements of a company for any continuing relationship.
The accounting period adopted by a business for the production of its financial statements.
A method of budgetary control that flexes, i.e. adjusts the original budget by applying standard
a presentation of multiple budgets that
Fraudulent Financial Reporting
Intentional misstatements or omissions of amounts or disclosures
Future-Oriented Financial Information
Information about prospective results of operations, financial position and/or changes in financial position, based on assumptions about future economic conditions and courses of action. Future-oriented financial information is presented as either a forecast or a projection.
a budget developed by top management
A budget that takes the previous year as a base and adds (or deducts) a percentage to arrive at
London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)
A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)
London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.
Long-term financial plan
financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.
the comprehensive set of all budgetary schedules
Include such things as freight, insurance, passenger services, and travel.
Notes to the financial statements
A detailed set of notes immediately following the financial statements in
a budget expressed in both units and dollars
a budget that has been developed
Perfectly competitive financial markets
Markets in which no trader has the power to change the price of
Planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS)
A method of budgeting in which budgets are allocated to projects or programmes rather than to responsibility centres.
A budget that allocates funds in line with strategies.
Pro forma financial statements
financial statements as adjusted to reflect a projected or planned transaction.
an approach to budgeting that relates
financial statements and financial information made public.
Restatement of Prior-Year Financial Statements
A recasting of prior-year financial statements to remove the effects of an error or other adjustment and report them on a new basis.
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