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Definition of FCIA

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FCIA

Foreign Credit Insurance Association. A private U.S. consortium of insurance companies that offers
trade credit insurance to U.S. exporters in conjunction with the U.S. Export-Import Bank.



Related Terms:

ABM (automated banking machine)

A Bank machine, sometimes referred to as an automated teller machine (ATM).


Accidental Dismemberment: (Credit Insurance)

Provides additional financial security should an insured person be dismembered or lose the use of a limb as the result of an accident.


Agency bank

A form of organization commonly used by Foreign Banks to enter the U.S. market. An agency
Bank cannot accept deposits or extend loans in its own name; it acts as agent for the parent Bank.


Amortization (Credit Insurance)

Refers to the reduction of debt by regular payments of interest and principal in order to pay off a loan by maturity.


Balance of Merchandise Trade

The difference between Exports and Imports of goods.



Balance of trade

Net flow of goods (Exports minus Imports) between countries.


Balance of Trade

See balance of merchandise trade.


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BAN (Bank anticipation notes)

Notes issued by states and municipalities to obtain interim financing for
projects that will eventually be funded long term through the sale of a bond issue.


Bank

Money in a Bank cheque account, the difference between receipts and payments.


Bank collection float

The time that elapses between when a check is deposited into a Bank account and when the funds are available to the depositor, during which period the Bank is collecting payment from the payer's Bank.


Bank discount basis

A convention used for quoting bids and offers for treasury bills in terms of annualized
yield , based on a 360-day year.


Bank draft

A draft addressed to a Bank.


bank draft

A guaranteed form of payment which is issued in amounts over $5,000.


Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

An international Bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which
serves as a forum for monetary cooperation among several European central Banks, the Bank of Japan, and the
U.S. Federal Reserve System. Founded in 1930 to handle the German payment of World War I reparations, it
now monitors and collects data on international Banking activity and promulgates rules concerning
international Bank regulation.


Bank line

Line of credit granted by a Bank to a customer.


Bank overdraft

Money owed to the Bank in a cheque account where payments exceed receipts.


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Bank reconciliation

The process of taking the balances from the Bank statement and the general ledger and making adjustments so that they agree.


Bank reconciliation

A comparison between the cash position recorded on a company’s
books and the position noted on the records of its Bank, usually resulting in some
changes to the book balance to account for transactions that are recorded on the
Bank’s records but not the company’s.



Bank wire

A computer message system linking major Banks. It is used not for effecting payments, but as a
mechanism to advise the receiving Bank of some action that has occurred, e.g. the payment by a customer of
funds into that Bank's account.


Banker's acceptance

A short-term credit investment created by a non-financial firm and guaranteed by a
Bank as to payment. Acceptances are traded at discounts from face value in the secondary market. These
instruments have been a popular investment for money market funds. They are commonly used in
international transactions.


Bankers Acceptances

A bill of exchange, or draft, drawn by the borrower for payment on a specified date, and accepted by a chartered Bank. Upon acceptance, the bill becomes, in effect, a postdated certified cheque.


Bankruptcy

State of being unable to pay debts. Thus, the ownership of the firm's assets is transferred from
the stockholders to the bondholders.


bankruptcy

The reorganization or liquidation of a firm that cannot pay its debts.


Bankruptcy cost view

The argument that expected indirect and direct Bankruptcy costs offset the other
benefits from leverage so that the optimal amount of leverage is less than 100% debt finaning.


Bankruptcy risk

The risk that a firm will be unable to meet its debt obligations. Also referred to as default or insolvency risk.


Bankruptcy view

The argument that expected Bankruptcy costs preclude firms from being financed entirely
with debt.


Basket trades

Related: Program trades.


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Beneficiary (Credit Insurance)

The person or party designated to receive proceeds entitled by a benefit. Payment of a benefit is triggered by an event. In the case of credit insurance, the beneficiary will always be the creditor.



Best-interests-of-creditors test

The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization
must receive at least as much as he would have if the debtor were liquidated.


Block trade

A large trading order, defined on the New York Stock Exchange as an order that consists of
10,000 shares of a given stock or a total market value of $200,000 or more.


Borrower (Credit Insurance)

A consumer who borrows money from a lender.


Canadian Deposit Insurance Corporation

Better known as CDIC, this is an organization which insures qualifying deposits and GICs at savings institutions, mainly Banks and trust companys, which belong to the CDIC for amounts up to $60,000 and for terms of up to five years. Many types of deposits are not insured, such as mortgage-backed deposits, annuities of duration of more than five years, and mutual funds.


Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association (CLHIA)

An Association of most of the life and health insurance companies in Canada that conducts research and compiles information about the life and health insurance industry in Canada.


Central Bank

A public agency responsible for regulating and controlling an economy's monetary and financial institutions. It is the sole money-issuing authority.


Child Insurance Rider (CIR)

insurance or insurability provided on current or future children of insured.


Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)

An international wire transfer system for high-value
payments operated by a group of major Banks.


Co-insurance

In medical insurance, the insured person and the insurer sometimes share the cost of services under a policy in a specified ratio, for example 80% by the insurer and 20% by the insured. By this means, the cost of coverage to the insured is reduced.


Coinsurance effect

Refers to the fact that the merger of two firms decreases the probability of default on
either firm's debt.


Commercial Bank

A privately owned, profit-seeking firm that accepts deposits and makes loans.


Commercial Business Loan (Credit Insurance)

An agreement between a creditor and a borrower, where the creditor has loaned an amount to the borrower for business purposes.


Comparative credit analysis

A method of analysis in which a firm is compared to others that have a desired
target debt rating in order to infer an appropriate financial ratio target.


concentration banking

System whereby customers make payments to a regional collection center which transfers funds to
a principal Bank.


Consortium banks

A merchant Banking subsidiary set up by several Banks that may or may not be of the
same nationality. consortium Banks are common in the Euromarket and are active in loan syndication.


Consumer credit

credit granted by a firm to consumers for the purchase of goods or services. Also called
retail credit.


Consumer Credit Protection Act

A federal Act specifying the proportion of
total pay that may be garnished.


Controlled foreign corporation (CFC)

A Foreign corporation whose voting stock is more than 50% owned
by U.S. stockholders, each of whom owns at least 10% of the voting power.


Cost of Insurance

The cost of insuring a particular individual under the policy. It is based on the amount of coverage, as well as the underwriting class, age, sex and tobacco consumption of that individual.


Counter trade

The exchange of goods for other goods rather than for cash; barter.


Credit

Money loaned.


Credit

Buying or selling goods or services now with the intention of payment following at some time in
the future (as opposed to buying or selling goods or services for cash).


Credit

One side of a journal entry, usually depicted as the right side.


Credit

A rating of a company's credit (ability to payback debt), usually by a third party credit agency.


credit

On your Bank statement, 'credit' represents funds that you have deposited into your account. The opposite of a credit is a debit.
However, ‘credit’ also means money that you borrow from a financial lender, like a Bank. A credit card, for example, is a card that allows you to access funds which you then have to repay.


Credit analysis

The process of analyzing information on companies and bond issues in order to estimate the
ability of the issuer to live up to its future contractual obligations. Related: default risk


credit analysis

Procedure to determine the likelihood a customer will pay its bills.


credit bureau

An organization that provides financial institutions with credit information concerning existing or potential customers who are looking to obtain credit services.


credit card

A revolving source of credit with a pre-established limit. You have to pay interest on a credit card if you have an outstanding balance.


Credit Crunch

A decline in the ability or willingness of Banks to lend.


Credit enhancement

Purchase of the financial guarantee of a large insurance company to raise funds.


Credit Loss

A loan receivable that has proven uncollectible and is written off.


credit memo

A record of the funds which have been credited to your account.


Credit period

The length of time for which the customer is granted credit.


credit policy

Standards set to determine the amount and nature of credit to extend to customers.


Credit Rationing

Restriction of loans by lenders so that not all borrowers willing to pay the current interest rate are able to obtain loans.


Credit risk

The risk that an issuer of debt securities or a borrower may default on his obligations, or that the
payment may not be made on a negotiable instrument. Related: Default risk


Credit Risk

Financial and moral risk that an obligation will not be paid and a loss will result.


Credit scoring

A statistical technique wherein several financial characteristics are combined to form a single
score to represent a customer's creditworthiness.


Credit spread

Related:Quality spread


Credit Terms

Conditions under which credit is extended by a lender to a borrower.


Credit Union

credit unions are community based financial co-operatives and most offer a full range of services. All are owned and controlled by members who are also shareholders. credit unions are regulated provincially and insured by a stabilization fund, deposit insurance or guarantee corporation.
credit unions are supported by a system of provincial credit union Centrals, a national credit union Central and affiliated national financial co-operatives.


Crediting rate

The interest rate offered on an investment type insurance policy.


Creditor

Lender of money.


Creditor

Person or business that is owed money.


Creditor (Credit Insurance)

A lender or lending institution that offers financing and loans to a borrower, for the purpose of acquiring a commodity.


Creditor Proof Protection

The creditor proof status of such things as life insurance, non-registered life insurance investments, life insurance RRSPs and life insurance RRIFs make these attractive products for high net worth individuals, professionals and business owners who may have creditor concerns. Under most circumstances the creditor proof rules of the different provincial insurance acts take priority over the federal Bankruptcy rules.
The provincial insurance acts protect life insurance products which have a family class beneficiary. Family class beneficiaries include the spouse, parent, child or grandchild of the life insured, except in Quebec, where creditor protection rules apply to spouse, ascendants and descendants of the insured. Investments sold by other financial institutions do not offer the same security should the holder go Bankrupt. There are also circumstances under which the creditor proof protections do not hold for life insurance products. Federal Bankruptcy law disallows the protection for any transfers made within one year of Bankruptcy. In addition, should it be found that a person shifted money to an insurance company fund in bad faith for the specific purpose of avoiding creditors, these funds will not be creditor proof.


Creditors

Purchases of goods or services from suppliers on credit to whom the debt is not yet paid. Or a
term used in the Balance Sheet to denote current liabilities.


Critical Illness Insurance

Coverage that provides a lump-sum payment should you be diagnosed with a critical illness and survive a pre-determined period of time. There are no restrictions on how you use your benefit.


Critical Illness Insurance (Credit Insurance)

Coverage that provides a lump-sum payment should you become seriously ill with a specified illness. The payment is made to your creditors to pay off your debt owing.


Dead Peasants Insurance

Also known as "Dead Janitors insurance", this is the practice, where allowed, in several U.S. states, of numerous well known large American Corporations taking out corporate owned life insurance policies on millions of their regular employees, often without the knowledge or consent of those employees. Corporations profiting from the deaths of their employees [and sometimes ex-employees] have attracted adverse publicity because ultimate death benefits are seldom, even partially passed down to surviving families.


Debt (Credit Insurance)

Money, goods or services that someone is obligated to pay someone else in accordance with an expressed or implied agreement. Debt may or may not be secured.


Demand line of credit

A Bank line of credit that enables a customer to borrow on a daily or on-demand basis.


Disability Insurance

insurance that pays you an ongoing income if you become disabled and are unable to pursue employment or business activities. There are limits to how much you can receive based on your pre-disability earnings. Rates will vary based on occupational duties and length of time in a particular industry. This kind of coverage has a waiting period before you can begin collecting benefits, usually 30, 60 or 90 days. The benefit paying period also varies from 2 years to age 65. A short waiting period will cost more that a longer waiting period. As well, a long benefit paying period will cost more than a short benefit paying period.


Disability Insurance (Credit Insurance)

Group insurance designed to cover monthly obligations due to a borrower being unable to work due to sickness or injury.


Eligible bankers' acceptances

In the BA market, an acceptance may be referred to as eligible because it is
acceptable by the Fed as collateral at the discount window and/or because the accepting Bank can sell it
without incurring a reserve requirement.


Equity-based insurance

Life insurance or annuity product in which the cash value and benefit level fluctuate according to the performance of an equity portfolio.


Errors and Omissions Insurance

insurance coverage purchased by the agent/broker which provides protection against loss incurred by a client because of some negligent act, error, oversight, or omission by the agent/broker.


Eurobank

A Bank that regularly accepts Foreign currency denominated deposits and makes Foreign currency loans.


Eurocredits

Intermediate-term loans of Eurocurrencies made by Banking syndicates to corporate and
government borrowers.


Evergreen credit

Revolving credit without maturity.


Export

Domestically produced good or service sold to Foreigners.


Export Credit Insurance

The granting of insurance to cover the commercial and political risks of selling in Foreign markets.


Export Financing

A range of financing products (loans. guarantees, letters of credit, insurance etc.) in support of a variety of activities which help Canadian firms expand into new Export markets.


Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank)

The U.S. federal government agency that extends trade credits to U.S.
companies to facilitate the financing of U.S. Exports.


Federal credit agencies

Agencies of the federal government set up to supply credit to various classes of
institutions and individuals, e.g. S&Ls, small business firms, students, farmers, and Exporters.


Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

A federal institution that insures Bank deposits.


Federal Financing Bank

A federal institution that lends to a wide array of federal credit agencies funds it
obtains by borrowing from the U.S. Treasury.


Federal Home Loan Banks

The institutions that regulate and lend to savings and loan Associations. The
Federal Home Loan Banks play a role analogous to that played by the Federal Reserve Banks vis-à-vis
member commercial Banks.


Federal Insurance Contributions Act of 1935 (FICA)

A federal Act authorizing the government to collect Social Security and Medicare payroll taxes.


Federal Reserve Banks

The twelve district Banks in the Federal Reserve System.


Five Cs of credit

Five characteristics that are used to form a judgement about a customer's creditworthiness:
character, capacity, capital, collateral, and conditions.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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