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Ex post return

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Definition of Ex post return

Ex Post Return Image 1

Ex post return

Related: Holding period return



Related Terms:

Abnormal returns

Part of the return that is not due to systematic influences (market wide influences). In
other words, abnormal returns are above those predicted by the market movement alone. Related: excess
returns.


Absolute Right of Return

Goods may be returned to the seller by the purchaser without restrictions.


Accounting exposure

The change in the value of a firm's foreign currency denominated accounts due to a
change in exchange rates.


Accounting rate of return (ARR)

A method of investment appraisal that measures
the profit generated as a percentage of the
investment – see return on investment.


accounting rate of return (ARR)

the rate of earnings obtained on the average capital investment over the life of a capital project; computed as average annual profits divided by average investment; not based on cash flow



Accrued expenses payable

expenses that have to be recorded in order for the financial statements to be accurate. Accrued expenses usually do not involve the receipt of an invoice from the company providing the goods or services.


accrued expenses payable

The account that records the short-term, noninterest-
bearing liabilities of a business that accumulate over time, such
as vacation pay owed to employees. This liability is different than
accounts payable, which is the liability account for bills that have been
received by a business from purchases on credit.


Ex Post Return Image 2

After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.


Aggregate Expenditure Curve

Aggregate demand for goods and services drawn as a function of the level of national income.


American Stock Exchange (AMEX)

The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.


Annual fund operating expenses

For investment companies, the management fee and "other expenses,"
including the expenses for maintaining shareholder records, providing shareholders with financial statements,
and providing custodial and accounting services. For 12b-1 funds, selling and marketing costs are included.


annual return

The fund return, for any 12-month period, including changes in unit value and the reinvestment of distributions, but not taking into account sales, redemption, distribution or other optional charges or income taxes payable by any unitholder that would reduce returns.


Annualized holding period return

The annual rate of return that when compounded t times, would have
given the same t-period holding return as actually occurred from period 1 to period t.


Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return

Arithmetic mean return.


Arithmetic mean return

An average of the subperiod returns, calculated by summing the subperiod returns
and dividing by he number of subperiods.


Arms index

Also known as a trading index (TRIN)= (number of advancing issues)/ (number of declining
issues) (Total up volume )/ (total down volume). An advance/decline market indicator. Less than 1.0 indicates
bullish demand, while above 1.0 is bearish. The index often is smoothed with a simple moving average.


Autonomous Expenditure

Elements of spending that do not vary systematically with variables such as GDP that are explained by the theory. See also exogenous expenditure.


Average accounting return

The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average
book value of the investment during its life.



Average rate of return (ARR)

The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested.


Balance sheet exposure

See:accounting exposure.


Biased expectations theories

Related: pure expectations theory.


Bill of exchange

General term for a document demanding payment.


Bond indexing

Designing a portfolio so that its performance will match the performance of some bond index.


book rate of return

Accounting income divided by book value.
Also called accounting rate of return.


Book Returns

Book yield is the investment income earned in a year on a portfolio of assets purchased over a number of years and at different interest rates, divided by the book value of those assets.


Business Expansion Investment

The use of capital to create more money through the addition of fixed assets or through income producing vehicles.


Buying the index

Purchasing the stocks in the S&P 500 in the same proportion as the index to achieve the
same return.


Capital expenditures

Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as
property, plant or equipment.



capital expenditures

Refers to investments by a business in long-term
operating assets, including land and buildings, heavy machinery and
equipment, vehicles, tools, and other economic resources used in the
operations of a business. The term capital is used to emphasize that
these are relatively large amounts and that a business has to raise capital
for these expenditures from debt and equity sources.


CAPITAL IN EXCESS OF PAR VALUE

What a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share.


Capital in excess par

Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with additional paid-in capital.


Capitalized Cost An expenditure or accrual that is reported as an asset to be amortized against

future-period revenue.


Capitalized Expenditures

expenditures that are accounted for as assets to be amortized
against income in future periods as opposed to current-period expenses.


CARs (cumulative abnormal returns)

a measure used in academic finance articles to measure the excess returns an investor would have received over a particular time period if he or she were invested in a particular stock.
This is typically used in control and takeover studies, where stockholders are paid a premium for being taken over. Starting some time period before the takeover (often five days before the first announced bid, but sometimes a longer period), the researchers calculate the actual daily stock returns for the target firm and subtract out the expected market returns (usually calculated using the firm’s beta and applying it to overall market movements during the time period under observation).
The excess actual return over the capital asset pricing model-determined expected return market is called an ‘‘abnormal return.’’ The cumulation of the daily abnormal returns over the time period under observation is the CAR. The term CAR(-5, 0) means the CAR calculated from five days before the
announcement to the day of announcement. The CAR(-1, 0) is a control premium, although Mergerstat generally uses the stock price five days before announcement rather than one day before announcement as the denominator in its control premium calculation. However, the CAR for any period other than (-1, 0) is not mathematically equivalent to a control premium.


Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)

A not-for-profit corporation owned by its members. Its primary
functions are to provide a location for trading futures and options, collect and disseminate market information,
maintain a clearing mechanism and enforce trading rules.


Commodities Exchange Center (CEC)

The location of five New York futures exchanges: Commodity
exchange, Inc. (COMex), the New York Mercantile exchange (NYMex), the New York Cotton exchange,
the Coffee, Sugar and Cocoa exchange (CSC), and the New York futures exchange (NYFE). common size
statement A statement in which all items are expressed as a percentage of a base figure, useful for purposes of
analyzing trends and the changing relationship between financial statement items. For example, all items in
each year's income statement could be presented as a percentage of net sales.


Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The CPI, as it is called, measures the prices of consumer goods and services and is a
measure of the pace of U.S. inflation. The U.S.Department of Labor publishes the CPI very month.


Consumer Price Index (CPI)

An index calculated by tracking the cost of a typical bundle of consumer goods and services over time. It is commonly used to measure inflation.


Convertible exchangeable preferred stock

Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred
stock.


Convex

Bowed, as in the shape of a curve. Usually referring to the price/required yield relationship for
option-free bonds.


Convexity

A measure of the rate of change in duration; measured in time.
The greater the rate of change, the more the duration changes as yield changes.


Cost Plus Estimated Earnings in Excess of Billings

Revenue recognized to date under the percentage-of-completion method in excess of amounts billed. Also known as unbilled accounts
receivable.


Cumulative abnormal return (CAR)

Sum of the differences between the expected return on a stock and the
actual return that comes from the release of news to the market.


Current Income Tax Expense

That portion of the total income tax provision that is based on
taxable income.


Deferred Income Tax Expense

That portion of the total income tax provision that is the result
of current-period originations and reversals of temporary differences.


Depreciation expense

An expense account that represents the portion of the cost of an asset that is being charged to expense during the current period.


Dollar return

The return realized on a portfolio for any evaluation period, including (1) the change in market
value of the portfolio and (2) any distributions made from the portfolio during that period.


Dollar-weighted rate of return

Also called the internal rate of return, the interest rate that will make the
present value of the cash flows from all the subperiods in the evaluation period plus the terminal market value
of the portfolio equal to the initial market value of the portfolio.


EAFE index

The European, Australian, and Far East stock index, computed by Morgan Stanley.


Economic exposure

The extent to which the value of the firm will change because of an exchange rate change.


Effective convexity

The convexity of a bond calculated with cash flows that change with yields.


Effective Exchange Rate

The weighted average of several exchange rates, where the weights are determined by the extent of our trade done with each country.


Enhanced indexing

Also called indexing plus, an indexing strategy whose objective is to exceed or replicate
the total return performance of some predetermined index.


Equation of Exchange

The quantity theory equation Mv = PQ.


Ex-dividend

This literally means "without dividend." The buyer of shares when they are quoted ex-dividend
is not entitled to receive a declared dividend.


Ex-dividend date

The first day of trading when the seller, rather than the buyer, of a stock will be entitled to
the most recently announced dividend payment. This date set by the NYSE (and generally followed on other
US exchanges) is currently two business days before the record date. A stock that has gone ex-dividend is
marked with an x in newspaper listings on that date.


ex-dividend date

Date that determines whether a stockholder is entitled to a dividend payment; anyone holding stock before this date is entitled to a dividend.


Ex-rights

In connection with a rights offering, shares of stock that are trading without the rights attached.


Ex-rights date

The date on which a share of common stock begins trading ex-rights.


Exact matching

A bond portfolio management strategy that involves finding the lowest cost portfolio
generating cash inflows exactly equal to cash outflows that are being financed by investment.


Exante return

The expected return of a portfolio based on the expected returns of its component assets and
their weights.


Except for opinion

An auditor's opinion reflecting the fact that the auditor was unable to audit certain areas
of the company's operations because of restrictions imposed by management or other conditions beyond the
auditor's control.


Excess Capacity

Unused production capacity.


Excess Demand

A situation in which demand exceeds supply.


Excess reserves

Any excess of actual reserves above required reserves.


Excess Reserves

Reserves of commercial banks in excess of those they are legally required to hold.


Excess return on the market portfolio

The difference between the return on the market portfolio and the
riskless rate.


Excess returns

Also called abnormal returns, returns in excess of those required by some asset pricing model.


Excess Supply

A situation in which supply exceeds demand.


Exchange

The marketplace in which shares, options and futures on stocks, bonds, commodities and indices
are traded. Principal US stock exchanges are: New York Stock exchange (NYSE), American Stock exchange
(AMex) and the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASDAQ)


Exchange controls

Governmental restrictions on the purchase of foreign currencies by domestic citizens or
on the purchase of the local domestic currency by foreigners.


Exchange of assets

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its assets in exchange for cash or stock.


Exchange of stock

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its stock in exchange for cash or shares.


Exchange offer

An offer by the firm to give one security, such as a bond or preferred stock, in exchange for
another security, such as shares of common stock.


Exchange rate

The price of one country's currency expressed in another country's currency.


exchange rate

Amount of one currency needed to purchase one unit of another.


Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM)

The methodology by which members of the EMS maintain their
currency exchange rates within an agreed upon range with respect to other member countries.


Exchange Rate, Nominal

The price of one currency in terms of another, in this book defined as number of units of foreign currency per dollar.


Exchange Rate, Real

The nominal exchange rate corrected for price level differences.


Exchange rate risk

Also called currency risk, the risk of an investment's value changing because of currency
exchange rates.


Exchange risk

The variability of a firm's value that results from unexpected exchange rate changes or the
extent to which the present value of a firm is expected to change as a result of a given currency's appreciation
or depreciation.


Exchangeable Security

Security that grants the security holder the right to exchange the security for the
common stock of a firm other than the issuer of the security.


Exclusion

A specific condition or circumstance listed in the policy that are not covered by the policy


Exclusionary self-tender

The firm makes a tender offer for a given amount of its own stock while excluding
targeted stockholders.


Execution

The process of completing an order to buy or sell securities. Once a trade is executed, it is reported
by a Confirmation Report; settlement (payment and transfer of ownership) occurs in the U.S. between 1
(mutual funds) and 5 (stocks) days after an order is executed. Settlement times for exchange listed stocks are
in the process of being reduced to three days in the U. S.


Execution costs

The difference between the execution price of a security and the price that would have
existed in the absence of a trade, which can be further divided into market impact costs and market timing
costs.


Exempt securities

Instruments exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 or the
margin requirements of the SEC Act of 1934. Such securities include government bonds, agencies, munis,
commercial paper, and private placements.


Exercise

To implement the right of the holder of an option to buy (in the case of a call) or sell (in the case of
a put) the underlying security.


Exercise price

The price at which the underlying future or options contract may be bought or sold.


Exercise price

The price set for buying an asset (call) or selling an asset (put).
The strike price.


Exercise value

The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money
option.


Exercising the option

The act buying or selling the underlying asset via the option contract.


Exit Options

A variety of options available to an investor to recover their invested capital and the return on their investment.


Exit value

The value that an asset is expected to have at the time it is sold at a predetermined
point in the future.


Exogenous

An adjective indicating that something is determined by forces unrelated to the theory determining the variables under investigation.


Exogenous Expenditure

See autonomous expenditure.


Exogenous variable

A variable whose value is determined outside the model in which it is used. Also called
a parameter.


expatriate

a parent company or third-country national assigned
to a foreign subsidiary or a foreign national assigned
to the parent company


Expectations hypothesis theories

Theories of the term structure of interest rates which include the pure
expectations theory, the liquidity theory of the term structure, and the preferred habitat theory. These theories
hold that each forward rate equals the expected future interest rate for the relevant period. These three theories
differ, however, on whether other factors also affect forward rates, and how.
expectations theory of forward exchange rates A theory of foreign exchange rates that holds that the
expected future spot foreign exchange rate t periods in the future equals the current t-period forward exchange
rate.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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