 Financial Terms Cumulative abnormal return (CAR)

# Definition of Cumulative abnormal return (CAR) ## Cumulative abnormal return (CAR)

Sum of the differences between the expected return on a stock and the
actual return that comes from the release of news to the market.

# Related Terms:

## CARs (cumulative abnormal returns)

a measure used in academic finance articles to measure the excess returns an investor would have received over a particular time period if he or she were invested in a particular stock.
This is typically used in control and takeover studies, where stockholders are paid a premium for being taken over. Starting some time period before the takeover (often five days before the first announced bid, but sometimes a longer period), the researchers calculate the actual daily stock returns for the target firm and subtract out the expected market returns (usually calculated using the firm’s beta and applying it to overall market movements during the time period under observation).
The excess actual return over the capital asset pricing model-determined expected return market is called an ‘‘abnormal return.’’ The cumulation of the daily abnormal returns over the time period under observation is the car. The term car(-5, 0) means the car calculated from five days before the
announcement to the day of announcement. The car(-1, 0) is a control premium, although Mergerstat generally uses the stock price five days before announcement rather than one day before announcement as the denominator in its control premium calculation. However, the car for any period other than (-1, 0) is not mathematically equivalent to a control premium.

## Abnormal returns

Part of the return that is not due to systematic influences (market wide influences). In
other words, abnormal returns are above those predicted by the market movement alone. Related: excess
returns.

## Absolute Right of Return

Goods may be returned to the seller by the purchaser without restrictions.

## Accounting rate of return (ARR)

A method of investment appraisal that measures
the profit generated as a percentage of the
investment – see return on investment.

## accounting rate of return (ARR)

the rate of earnings obtained on the average capital investment over the life of a capital project; computed as average annual profits divided by average investment; not based on cash flow

## After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.

## annual return

The fund return, for any 12-month period, including changes in unit value and the reinvestment of distributions, but not taking into account sales, redemption, distribution or other optional charges or income taxes payable by any unitholder that would reduce returns. ## Annualized holding period return

The annual rate of return that when compounded t times, would have
given the same t-period holding return as actually occurred from period 1 to period t.

## Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return

Arithmetic mean return.

## Arithmetic mean return

An average of the subperiod returns, calculated by summing the subperiod returns
and dividing by he number of subperiods.

## Average accounting return

The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average
book value of the investment during its life.

## Average rate of return (ARR)

The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested.

## Balanced Scorecard

A system of non-financial performance measurement that links innovation, customer and process measures to financial performance.

## balanced scorecard (BSC)

an approach to performance
measurement that weighs performance measures from four
perspectives: financial performance, an internal business
perspective, a customer perspective, and an innovation and
learning perspective

## book rate of return

Accounting income divided by book value.
Also called accounting rate of return.

## Book Returns

Book yield is the investment income earned in a year on a portfolio of assets purchased over a number of years and at different interest rates, divided by the book value of those assets. ## Car

A loose quantity term sometimes used to describe a the amount of a commodity underlying one
commodity contract; e.g., "a car of bellies." Derived from the fact that quantities of the product specified in a
contract used to correspond closely to the capacity of a railroad car.

## CARDs

Certificates of Amortized Revolving Debt. Pass-through securities backed by credit card receivables.

## Carring costs

Costs that increase with increases in the level of investment in current assets.

## Carry

Related:net financing cost.

## carrying cost

the total variable cost of carrying one unit of
inventory in stock for one year; includes the opportunity
cost of the capital invested in inventory

## Carrying cost

The cost of holding inventory, which can include insurance,
spoilage, rent, and other expenses.

## carrying costs

Costs of maintaining current assets, including opportunity cost of capital.

Book value.

## CARs

Certificates of Automobile Receivables. Pass-through securities backed by automobile receivables.

## Cash and carry

Purchase of a security and simultaneous sale of a future, with the balance being financed
with a loan or repo.

## Clear Card

A credit card from which payments are deducted over subsequent time periods.

## Cost of carry

Related: Net financing cost

## credit card

A revolving source of credit with a pre-established limit. You have to pay interest on a credit card if you have an outstanding balance.

## Cumulative dividend feature

A requirement that any missed preferred or preference stock dividends be paid
in full before any common dividend payment is made.

The cumulative, after-tax, prior-year effect of a change in accounting
principle. It is reported as a single line item on the income statement in the year of the
change in accounting principle. The cumulative-effect-type adjustment is the most common accounting
treatment afforded changes in accounting principle.

## Cumulative Effect of a Change in Accounting Principle

The change in earnings of previous years
based on the assumption that a newly adopted accounting principle had previously been in use.

## Cumulative Effect of Accounting Change

The change in earnings of previous years assuming

## Cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose dividends accrue, should the issuer not make timely
dividend payments. Related: non-cumulative preferred stock.

## Cumulative probability distribution

A function that shows the probability that the random variable will
attain a value less than or equal to each value that the random variable can take on.

## Cumulative Translation Adjustment (CTA) account

An entry in a translated balance sheet in which gains
and/or losses from translation have been accumulated over a period of years. The CTA account is required
under the FASB No. 52 rule.

## Cumulative voting

A system of voting for directors of a corporation in which shareholder's total number of
votes is equal to his number of shares held times the number of candidates.

## cumulative voting

Voting system in which all the votes one shareholder is allowed to cast can be cast for one candidate for the board of directors.

## debit card

A card which enables you to directly access your bank account when paying for purchases. So instead of paying in cash or with a credit card, a debit card allows the specified amount of the purchase to be electronically debited, or withdrawn, from your bank account. See Interac Direct Payment for an explanation of the actual procedures that you follow at the point of sale (POS) terminal to use your debit card.

## Dollar return

The return realized on a portfolio for any evaluation period, including (1) the change in market
value of the portfolio and (2) any distributions made from the portfolio during that period.

## Dollar-weighted rate of return

Also called the internal rate of return, the interest rate that will make the
present value of the cash flows from all the subperiods in the evaluation period plus the terminal market value
of the portfolio equal to the initial market value of the portfolio.

## Ex post return

Related: Holding period return

## Exante return

The expected return of a portfolio based on the expected returns of its component assets and
their weights.

## Excess return on the market portfolio

The difference between the return on the market portfolio and the
riskless rate.

## Excess returns

Also called abnormal returns, returns in excess of those required by some asset pricing model.

## Expected future return

The return that is expected to be earned on an asset in the future. Also called the
expected return.

## Expected return

The return expected on a risky asset based on a probability distribution for the possible rates
of return. Expected return equals some risk free rate (generally the prevailing U.S. Treasury note or bond rate)
plus a risk premium (the difference between the historic market return, based upon a well diversified index
such as the S&P500 and historic U.S. Treasury bond) multiplied by the assets beta.

## Expected Return

The total amount of money (return) an investor anticipates to receive from an investment.

## Expected return-beta relationship

Implication of the CAPM that security risk premiums will be
proportional to beta.

## Expected return on investment

The return one can expect to earn on an investment. See: capital asset
pricing model.

## Geometric mean return

Also called the time weighted rate of return, a measure of the compounded rate of
growth of the initial portfolio market value during the evaluation period, assuming that all cash distributions
are reinvested in the portfolio. It is computed by taking the geometric average of the portfolio subperiod
returns.

## Green Card

The I-551 Permanent Resident card, held by a resident alien.

## Holding period return

The rate of return over a given period.

## Horizon return

Total return over a given horizon.

## Incremental internal rate of return

IRR on the incremental investment from choosing a large project

## Internal rate of return

Dollar-weighted rate of return. Discount rate at which net present value (NPV)
investment is zero. The rate at which a bond's future cash flows, discounted back to today, equals its price.

## Internal rate of return

a. The average annual yield earned by an investment during the period held.
b. The effective rate of interest on a loan.
c. The discount rate in discounted cash flow analysis.
d. The rate that adjusts the value of future cash receipts earned by an investment so that interest earned equals the original cost.
See Yield to maturity.

## Internal rate of return

The rate of return at which the present value of a series of future
cash flows equals the present value of all associated costs. This measure is most
commonly used in capital budgeting.

## Internal rate of return (IRR)

A discounted cash flow technique used for investment appraisal that calculates the effective cost of capital that produces a net present value of zero from a series of future cash flows and an
initial capital investment.

## internal rate of return (IRR)

The precise discount rate that makes the
present value (PV) of the future cash returns from a capital investment
exactly equal to the initial amount of capital invested. If IRR is higher
than the company’s cost-of-capital rate, the investment is an attractive
opportunity; if less, the investment is substandard from the cost-ofcapital
point of view.

## Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

The discount rate that equates the present value of the net cash
inflows with the present value of the net cash outflows
(investments). The IRR measures the profitability (rate of return) of
an investment in a project or security.

## internal rate of return (IRR)

the expected or actual rate of
return from a project based on, respectively, the assumed
or actual cash flows; the discount rate at which the net
present value of the cash flows equals zero

## internal rate of return (IRR)

Discount rate at which project NPV = 0.

## Inventory returns

Inventory returned from a customer for any reason. This receipt
is handled differently from a standard inventory receipt, typically into an inspection
area, from which it may be returned to stock, reworked, or scrapped.

## Leveraged required return

The required return on an investment when the investment is financed partially by debt.

## Loss carryback

The offsetting of a current year loss against the reported taxable
income of previous years.

## Loss carryforward

The offsetting of a current year loss against the reported taxable
income for future years.

## Market return

The return on the market portfolio.

## Money rate of return

Annual money return as a percentage of asset value.

## Monte Carlo simulation

An analytical technique for solving a problem by performing a large number of trail
runs, called simulations, and inferring a solution from the collective results of the trial runs. Method for
calculating the probability distribution of possible outcomes.

## Monte-Carlo simulation

A mathematical modeling process. For a model that
has several parameters with statistical properties, pick a set of random values
for the parameters and run a simulation. Then pick another set of values, and
run it again. Run it many times (often 10,000 times) and build up a statistical
distribution of outcomes of the simulation. This distribution of outcomes is

## Multiple rates of return

More than one rate of return from the same project that make the net present value
of the project equal to zero. This situation arises when the IRR method is used for a project in which negative
cash flows follow positive cash flows. For each sign change in the cash flows, there is a rate of return.

## Negative carry

Related: net financing cost

## Non-cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose holders must forgo dividend payments when the
company misses a dividend payment.
Related: cumulative preferred stock

## Paycard

A credit card into which a company directly deposits an employee's net pay.

## Portfolio internal rate of return

The rate of return computed by first determining the cash flows for all the
bonds in the portfolio and then finding the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows
equal to the market value of the portfolio.

## Positive carry

Related:net financing cost

## procurement card

a card given to selected employees as a
means of securing greater control over spending and eliminating
the paper-based purchase authorization process

## Purchase returns

A contra account that reduces purchases by the amount of items purchased that were subsequently returned.

## rate of return

Total income per period per dollar invested.

## Rate of Return

return on invested capital (calculated as a percentage). Often an investor has, as one of their investment criteria, a minimum acceptable rate of return on an acquisition.

## RATE OF RETURN ON STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

The percentage return or profit that management made on each dollar stockholders invested in a company. Here’s how you figure it:
(Net income) / (Stockholders’ equity)

## RATE OF RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS

The percentage return or profit that management made on each dollar of assets. The formula is:
(Net income) / (Total assets)

## Rate of return ratios

Ratios that are designed to measure the profitability of the firm in relation to various
measures of the funds invested in the firm.

## Realized return

The return that is actually earned over a given time period.

## Required return

The minimum expected return you would require to be willing to purchase the asset, that is,
to make the investment.

## Return

The change in the value of a portfolio over an evaluation period, including any distributions made
from the portfolio during that period.

See yield.

## return of capital

the recovery of the original investment (or principal) in a project

## Return on assets (ROA)

Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12 months
by total average assets. Result is shown as a percentage. ROA can be decomposed into return on sales (net
income/sales) multiplied by asset utilization (sales/assets).

## return on assets (ROA)

Although there is no single uniform practice for
calculating this ratio, generally it equals operating profit (before interest
and income tax) for a year divided by the total assets that are used to
generate the profit. ROA is the key ratio to test whether a business is
earning enough on its assets to cover its cost of capital. ROA is used for
determining financial leverage gain (or loss).

## return on capital

income; it is equal to the rate of return multiplied by the amount of the investment

## Return on capital employed (ROCE)

The operating profit before interest and tax as a percentage of the total shareholders’ funds plus
the long-term debt of the business.

## Return on Common Equity Ratio

A measure of the percentage return earned on the value of the
common equity invested in the company. It is calculated by
dividing the net income available for distribution to shareholders
by the book value of the common equity.

## Return on equity (ROE)

Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12
months by common stockholder equity (adjusted for stock splits). Result is shown as a percentage. Investors
use ROE as a measure of how a company is using its money. ROE may be decomposed into return on assets
(ROA) multiplied by financial leverage (total assets/total equity).

## return on equity (ROE)

This key ratio, expressed as a percent, equals net
income for the year divided by owners’ equity. ROE should be higher than
a business’s interest rate on debt because the owners take more risk.

## return on investment

a ratio that relates income generated
by an investment center to the resources (or asset base)
used to produce that income

## Return on investment (ROI)

Generally, book income as a proportion of net book value.

## RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI)

In its most basic form, the rate of return equals net income divided by the amount of money invested. It can be applied to a particular product or piece of equipment, or to a business as a whole.