|engineering change order (ECO)
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Definition of engineering change order (ECO)
engineering change order (ECO)
a business mandate that changes the way in which a product is manufactured or a
Abramsâ€™ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.
The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
General term for a document demanding payment.
A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
Sources of funds internally provided from operations that alter a company's
A not-for-profit corporation owned by its members. Its primary
The location of five New York futures exchanges: Commodity
Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
Refers to the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated
Date on which holders of record in a firm's stock ledger are designated as the recipients of
An order to buy or sell stock that automatically expires if it can't be executed on the day it is entered.
economic environment in which the firm expects to reside over the life of the
See: in-substance defeasance.
Exists when the costs and/or revenues of one project depend on those of another.
The real flow of cash that a firm could pay out forever in the absence of any change in
The extent to which the value of the firm will change because of an exchange rate change.
Cash flow plus change in present value.
Economic order quantity (EOQ)
The order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs.
Profits in excess of the competitive level.
In project financing, the risk that the project's output will not be salable at a price that will
For any entity, the difference between the market value of all its assets and the market
An agreement between two or more countries that allows the free movement of capital,
Economies of scale
The decrease in the marginal cost of production as a plant's scale of operations increases.
Economies of scope
Scope economies exist whenever the same investment can support multiple profitable
Electronic data interchange (EDI)
The exchange of information electronically, directly from one firm's
The marketplace in which shares, options and futures on stocks, bonds, commodities and indices
A nickname for the New York stock exchange. Also known as the Big Board. More than
Governmental restrictions on the purchase of foreign currencies by domestic citizens or
Exchange of assets
Acquisition of another company by purchase of its assets in exchange for cash or stock.
Exchange of stock
Acquisition of another company by purchase of its stock in exchange for cash or shares.
An offer by the firm to give one security, such as a bond or preferred stock, in exchange for
The price of one country's currency expressed in another country's currency.
Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM)
The methodology by which members of the EMS maintain their
Exchange rate risk
Also called currency risk, the risk of an investment's value changing because of currency
The variability of a firm's value that results from unexpected exchange rate changes or the
Security that grants the security holder the right to exchange the security for the
Fill or kill order
A trading order that is canceled unless executed within a designated time period.
Combining or dividing existing instruments to create new financial products.
A country's decision to tie the value of its currency to another country's currency, gold
Floating exchange rate
A country's decision to allow its currency value to freely change. The currency is not
Currency from another country.
Foreign exchange controls
Various forms of controls imposed by a government on the purchase/sale of
Foreign exchange dealer
A firm or individual that buys foreign exchange from one party and then sells it to
Foreign exchange risk
The risk that a long or short position in a foreign currency might have to be closed out
Foreign exchange swap
An agreement to exchange stipulated amounts of one currency for another currency
Forward exchange rate
Exchange rate fixed today for exchanging currency at some future date.
Gold exchange standard
A system of fixing exchange rates adopted in the Bretton Woods agreement. It
Historical exchange rate
An accounting term that refers to the exchange rate in effect when an asset or
The date on which holders of record in a firm's stock ledger are designated as the
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development - IBRD or World Bank
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development makes loans at nearly conventional terms to countries for projects of high
Leading economic indicators
economic series that tend to rise or fall in advance of the rest of the economy.
An order to buy a stock at or below a specified price or to sell a stock at or above a specified
Limit order book
A record of unexecuted limit orders that is maintained by the specialist. These orders are
London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)
A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)
London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.
This is an order to immediately buy or sell a security at the current trading price.
Negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW)
Demand deposits that pay interest.
This is the difference between a day's last trade and the previous day's last trade.
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)
Also known as the Big Board or The Exhange. More than 2,00 common
Nominal exchange rate
The actual foreign exchange quotation in contrast to the real exchange rate that has
Without recourse, as in a non-recourse lease.
Open (good-til-cancelled) order
An individual investor can place an order to buy or sell a security. That
A securities marketplace wherein purchasers and sellers regularly gather to trade
Pecking-order view (of capital structure)
The argument that external financing transaction costs, especially
Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX)
A securities exchange where American and European foreign
An upward movement of prices. Opposite of reaction.
Real exchange rates
Exchange rates that have been adjusted for the inflation differential between two countries.
1) Date by which a shareholder must officially own shares in order to be entitled to a dividend.
Term describing a type of loan. If a loan is with recourse, the lender has a general claim against the
Second pass regression
A cross-sectional regression of portfolio returns on betas. The estimated slope is the
1) Procedure for selling blocks of seasoned issues of stocks.
The market where securities are traded after they are initially offered in the primary
Securities & Exchange Commission
The SEC is a federal agency that regulates the U.S.financial markets.
Sell limit order
Conditional trading order that indicates that a, security may be sold at the designated price or
SIMEX (Singapore International Monetary Exchange)
A leading futures and options exchange in Singapore.
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT)
A dedicated computer network to support funds transfer messages internationally between over 900 member banks worldwide.
Spot exchange rates
Exchange rate on currency for immediate delivery. Related: forward exchange rate.
Formal organizations, approved and regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission
An order to sell a stock when the price falls to a specified level.
Stop order (or stop)
An order to buy or sell at the market when a definite price is reached, either above (on a
A stop order that designates a price limit. In contrast to the stop order, which becomes a
Without the lender having any right to seek payment or seize assets in the event of
MACRS (Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System)
A depreciation method created by the IRS under the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Companies must use it to depreciate all plant and equipment assets installed after December 31, 1986 (for tax purposes).
Economic Value Added (EVA)
Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge
The process of taking the balances from the bank statement and the general ledger and making adjustments so that they agree.
The date used to decide which shareholders will receive the dividend. The owners of the shares at the end of this day are entitled to the dividend.
Refers to recouping, or regaining, invested capital over
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
The federal agency that
stockholders' equity, statement of changes in
Although often considered
The market where securities are exchanged between investors.
business process reengineering (BPR)
the process of combining information technology to create new and more effective
see simultaneous engineering
the creation of multi-country markets
economic order quantity (EOQ)
an estimate of the number
economic production run (EPR)
an estimate of the number
when the incremental revenue from the sale of reworked defective units is greater than
economic value added (EVA)
a measure of the extent to which income exceeds the dollar cost of capital; calculated
electronic data interchange (EDI)
the computer-to-computer transfer of information in virtual real time using standardized formats developed by the American National Standards Institute
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