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Economic Value Added (EVA) |
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Definition of Economic Value Added (EVA)Economic Value Added (EVA)Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge economic value added (EVA)a measure of the extent to which income exceeds the dollar cost of capital; calculated economic value added (EVA)Term used by the consulting firm Stern Stewart for profit remaining after deduction of the cost
Related Terms:economic components modelAbramsâ€™ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components. NPV (net present value of cash flows)Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay. PV (present value of cash flows)the value in todayâ€™s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods. Adjusted present value (APV)The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity Beggar-thy-neighbor devaluationA devaluation that is designed to cheapen a nation's currency and thereby Bond valueWith respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible Book valueA company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A Book value per shareThe ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value Carrying valueBook value. Cash-surrender valueAn amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life Conversion valueAlso called parity value, the value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately. Devaluation A decrease in the spot price of the currency
Economic assumptionseconomic environment in which the firm expects to reside over the life of the Economic defeasanceSee: in-substance defeasance. Economic dependenceExists when the costs and/or revenues of one project depend on those of another. Economic earningsThe real flow of cash that a firm could pay out forever in the absence of any change in Economic exposureThe extent to which the value of the firm will change because of an exchange rate change. Economic incomeCash flow plus change in present value. Economic order quantity (EOQ)The order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs. Economic rentsProfits in excess of the competitive level. Economic riskIn project financing, the risk that the project's output will not be salable at a price that will Economic surplusFor any entity, the difference between the market value of all its assets and the market Economic unionAn agreement between two or more countries that allows the free movement of capital, Evaluation periodThe time interval over which a money manager's performance is evaluated. Exercise valueThe amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money Expected valueThe weighted average of a probability distribution. Expected value of perfect informationThe expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known Extraordinary positive valueA positive net present value. Face valueSee: Par value. Firm's net value of debtTotal firm value minus total firm debt. Future valueThe amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified Intrinsic value of an optionThe amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney Intrinsic value of a firmThe present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the Investment valueRelated:straight value. Irrelevance resultThe Modigliani and Miller theorem that a firm's capital structure is irrelevant to the firm's Leading economic indicatorseconomic series that tend to rise or fall in advance of the rest of the economy. Liquidation valueNet amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt. Loan valueThe amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate Market value1) The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold. Market value ratiosRatios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial Market value-weighted indexAn index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average Maturity valueRelated: par value. Net adjusted present valueThe adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment. Net asset value (NAV)The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share Net book valueThe current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any Net present value (NPV)The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost. Net present value of growth opportunitiesA model valuing a firm in which net present value of new Net present value of future investmentsThe present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from Net present value ruleAn investment is worth making if it has a positive NPV. Projects with negative NPVs Net salvage valueThe after-tax net cash flow for terminating the project. Original face valueThe principal amount of the mortgage as of its issue date. Par valueAlso called the maturity value or face value, the amount that the issuer agrees to pay at the maturity date. Parity valueRelated:conversion value Performance evaluationThe evaluation of a manager's performance which involves, first, determining Present valueThe amount of cash today that is equivalent in value to a payment, or to a stream of payments, Present value factorFactor used to calculate an estimate of the present value of an amount to be received in Present value of growth opportunities (NPV)Net present value of investments the firm is expected to make Price value of a basis point (PVBP)Also called the dollar value of a basis point, a measure of the change in Relative valueThe attractiveness measured in terms of risk, liquidity, and return of one instrument relative to Replacement valueCurrent cost of replacing the firm's assets. Residual valueUsually refers to the value of a lessor's property at the time the lease expires. RevaluationAn increase in the foreign exchange value of a currency that is pegged to other currencies or gold. Salvage valueScrap value of plant and equipment. Standardized valueAlso called the normal deviate, the distance of one data point from the mean, divided by Straight valueAlso called investment value, the value of a convertible security without the con-version option. Terminal valueThe value of a bond at maturity, typically its par value, or the value of an asset (or an entire Time value of an optionThe portion of an option's premium that is based on the amount of time remaining Time value of moneyThe idea that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, because the dollar Utility valueThe welfare a given investor assigns to an investment with a particular return and risk. Value-added taxMethod of indirect taxation whereby a tax is levied at each stage of production on the value Value-at-Risk model (VAR)Procedure for estimating the probability of portfolio losses exceeding some Value additivity principalPrevails when the value of a whole group of assets exactly equals the sum of the Value dateIn the market for Eurodollar deposits and foreign exchange, value date refers to the delivery date Value datingRefers to when value or credit is given for funds transferred between banks. Value managerA manager who seeks to buy stocks that are at a discount to their "fair value" and sell them at BOOK VALUEAn assetâ€™s cost basis minus accumulated depreciation. BOOK VALUE OF COMMON STOCKThe theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a companyâ€™s assets were sold on the balance sheetâ€™s date. Book value equals: CAPITAL IN EXCESS OF PAR VALUEWhat a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share. PAR VALUEAn arbitrary value that a company may assign to its stock. Par value has no relationship to what the stock is selling for on the open market. SALVAGE VALUEThe amount management estimates a piece of equipment will be worth at the end of its useful life, either as a trade-in or if it were sold for scrap. Cash value added (CVA)A method of investment appraisal that calculates the ratio of the net present value of an Net present value (NPV)A discounted cash flow technique used for investment appraisal that calculates the present value of future cash flows and deducts the initial capital investment. Relevant costThe cost that is relevant to a particular decision â€“ future, incremental cash flows. Relevant rangeThe upper and lower levels of activity within which the business expects to be operating within the short-term planning horizon (the budget period). Shareholder valueIncreasing the value of the business to its shareholders, achieved through a combination of Value-based managementA variety of approaches that emphasize increasing shareholder value as the primary goal of every business. No par value stockStock issued by the company that does not have an arbitrary value (par value) assigned to it. Par valueAn arbitrary value assigned by the company to each share of stock; it is used in the accounting for the sale of stock and in some jurisdictions for calculating taxes. Stated value stockStock issued by the company that does not have a par value, but does have a stated value. For accounting purposes, stated value is functionally equivalent to par value. book value and book value per shareGenerally speaking, these terms net present value (NPV)Equals the present value (PV) of a capital investment present value (PV)This amount is calculated by discounting the future Book ValueThe value of an asset as carried on the balance sheet of a Book Value per ShareThe book value of a company divided by the number of shares Expected ValueThe value of the possible outcomes of a variable weighted by the Face ValueThe nominal value of a security. Also called the par value. Future ValueThe amount a given payment, or series of payments, will be worth
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