Financial Terms
Economic Value Added (EVA)

Main Page

Alphabetical
Index

SEARCH


Information about financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.

 


Main Page: payroll, business, credit, investment, inventory control, finance, stock trading, tax advisor,

Definition of Economic Value Added (EVA)

Economic Value Added (EVA) Image 1

Economic Value Added (EVA)

Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge
to cover the cost of capital invested in the business.


economic value added (EVA)

a measure of the extent to which income exceeds the dollar cost of capital; calculated
as income minus (invested capital times the cost of capital percentage)


economic value added (EVA)

Term used by the consulting firm Stern Stewart for profit remaining after deduction of the cost
of the capital employed.



Related Terms:

economic components model

Abrams’ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
This model consists of four components: the measure of the economic impact of the delay-to-sale, monopsony power to buyers, and incremental transactions costs to both buyers and sellers.


NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.


PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in today’s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .



Adjusted present value (APV)

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.


Beggar-thy-neighbor devaluation

A devaluation that is designed to cheapen a nation's currency and thereby
increase its exports at other countries' expense and reduce imports. Such devaluations often lead to trade wars.


Economic Value Added (EVA) Image 2

Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.


Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.


Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).


Carrying value

Book value.


Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.


Conversion value

Also called parity value, the value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately.


Devaluation A decrease in the spot price of the currency



Economic assumptions

economic environment in which the firm expects to reside over the life of the
financial plan.


Economic defeasance

See: in-substance defeasance.


Economic Value Added (EVA) Image 3

Economic dependence

Exists when the costs and/or revenues of one project depend on those of another.


Economic earnings

The real flow of cash that a firm could pay out forever in the absence of any change in
the firm's productive capacity.



Economic exposure

The extent to which the value of the firm will change because of an exchange rate change.


Economic income

Cash flow plus change in present value.


Economic order quantity (EOQ)

The order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs.


Economic rents

Profits in excess of the competitive level.


Economic risk

In project financing, the risk that the project's output will not be salable at a price that will
cover the project's operating and maintenance costs and its debt service requirements.


Economic surplus

For any entity, the difference between the market value of all its assets and the market
value of its liabilities.


Economic union

An agreement between two or more countries that allows the free movement of capital,
labor, all goods and services, and involves the harmonization and unification of social, fiscal, and monetary
policies.


Evaluation period

The time interval over which a money manager's performance is evaluated.


Exercise value

The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money
option.


Expected value

The weighted average of a probability distribution.



Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.


Extraordinary positive value

A positive net present value.


Face value

See: Par value.


Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.


Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.


Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.


Intrinsic value of a firm

The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the
required rate of return.


Investment value

Related:straight value.


Irrelevance result

The Modigliani and Miller theorem that a firm's capital structure is irrelevant to the firm's
value.


Leading economic indicators

economic series that tend to rise or fall in advance of the rest of the economy.


Liquidation value

Net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt.


Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.


Market value

1) The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold.
2) The value investors believe a firm is worth; calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the
current market price of a firm's shares.


Market value ratios

Ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.


Market value-weighted index

An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average
of the returns on each security in the index, with the weights proportional to outstanding market value.


Maturity value

Related: par value.


Net adjusted present value

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.


Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.


Net book value

The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any
accounting adjustments such as depreciation.


Net present value (NPV)

The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost.


Net present value of growth opportunities

A model valuing a firm in which net present value of new
investment opportunities is explicitly examined.


Net present value of future investments

The present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from
all of the firm's future investments.


Net present value rule

An investment is worth making if it has a positive NPV. Projects with negative NPVs
should be rejected.


Net salvage value

The after-tax net cash flow for terminating the project.


Original face value

The principal amount of the mortgage as of its issue date.


Par value

Also called the maturity value or face value, the amount that the issuer agrees to pay at the maturity date.


Parity value

Related:conversion value


Performance evaluation

The evaluation of a manager's performance which involves, first, determining
whether the money manager added value by outperforming the established benchmark (performance
measurement) and, second, determining how the money manager achieved the calculated return (performance
attribution analysis).


Present value

The amount of cash today that is equivalent in value to a payment, or to a stream of payments,
to be received in the future.


Present value factor

Factor used to calculate an estimate of the present value of an amount to be received in
a future period.


Present value of growth opportunities (NPV)

Net present value of investments the firm is expected to make
in the future.


Price value of a basis point (PVBP)

Also called the dollar value of a basis point, a measure of the change in
the price of the bond if the required yield changes by one basis point.


Relative value

The attractiveness measured in terms of risk, liquidity, and return of one instrument relative to
another, or for a given instrument, of one maturity relative to another.


Replacement value

Current cost of replacing the firm's assets.


Residual value

Usually refers to the value of a lessor's property at the time the lease expires.


Revaluation

An increase in the foreign exchange value of a currency that is pegged to other currencies or gold.


Salvage value

Scrap value of plant and equipment.


Standardized value

Also called the normal deviate, the distance of one data point from the mean, divided by
the standard deviation of the distribution.


Straight value

Also called investment value, the value of a convertible security without the con-version option.


Terminal value

The value of a bond at maturity, typically its par value, or the value of an asset (or an entire
firm) on some specified future valuation date.


Time value of an option

The portion of an option's premium that is based on the amount of time remaining
until the expiration date of the option contract, and that the underlying components that determine the value of
the option may change during that time. Time value is generally equal to the difference between the premium
and the intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.


Time value of money

The idea that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, because the dollar
received today can earn interest up until the time the future dollar is received.


Utility value

The welfare a given investor assigns to an investment with a particular return and risk.


Value-added tax

Method of indirect taxation whereby a tax is levied at each stage of production on the value
added at that specific stage.


Value-at-Risk model (VAR)

Procedure for estimating the probability of portfolio losses exceeding some
specified proportion based on a statistical analysis of historical market price trends, correlations, and volatilities.


Value additivity principal

Prevails when the value of a whole group of assets exactly equals the sum of the
values of the individual assets that make up the group of assets. Stated differently, the principle that the net
present value of a set of independent projects is just the sum of the net present values of the individual projects.


Value date

In the market for Eurodollar deposits and foreign exchange, value date refers to the delivery date
of funds traded. Normally it is on spot transactions two days after a transaction is agreed upon and the future
date in the case of a forward foreign exchange trade.


Value dating

Refers to when value or credit is given for funds transferred between banks.


Value manager

A manager who seeks to buy stocks that are at a discount to their "fair value" and sell them at
or in excess of that value. Often a value stock is one with a low price to book value ratio.


BOOK VALUE

An asset’s cost basis minus accumulated depreciation.


BOOK VALUE OF COMMON STOCK

The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a company’s assets were sold on the balance sheet’s date. Book value equals:
(Stockholders’ equity) / (Common stock shares outstanding)


CAPITAL IN EXCESS OF PAR VALUE

What a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share.


PAR VALUE

An arbitrary value that a company may assign to its stock. Par value has no relationship to what the stock is selling for on the open market.


SALVAGE VALUE

The amount management estimates a piece of equipment will be worth at the end of its useful life, either as a trade-in or if it were sold for scrap.


Cash value added (CVA)

A method of investment appraisal that calculates the ratio of the net present value of an
investment to the initial capital investment.


Net present value (NPV)

A discounted cash flow technique used for investment appraisal that calculates the present value of future cash flows and deducts the initial capital investment.


Relevant cost

The cost that is relevant to a particular decision – future, incremental cash flows.


Relevant range

The upper and lower levels of activity within which the business expects to be operating within the short-term planning horizon (the budget period).


Shareholder value

Increasing the value of the business to its shareholders, achieved through a combination of
dividend and capital growth in the value of the shares.


Value-based management

A variety of approaches that emphasize increasing shareholder value as the primary goal of every business.


No par value stock

Stock issued by the company that does not have an arbitrary value (par value) assigned to it.


Par value

An arbitrary value assigned by the company to each share of stock; it is used in the accounting for the sale of stock and in some jurisdictions for calculating taxes.


Stated value stock

Stock issued by the company that does not have a par value, but does have a stated value. For accounting purposes, stated value is functionally equivalent to par value.


book value and book value per share

Generally speaking, these terms
refer to the balance sheet value of an asset (or less often of a liability) or
the balance sheet value of owners’ equity per share. Either term emphasizes
that the amount recorded in the accounts or on the books of a business
is the value being used. The total of the amounts reported for
owners’ equity in its balance sheet is divided by the number of stock
shares of a corporation to determine the book value per share of its capital
stock.


net present value (NPV)

Equals the present value (PV) of a capital investment
minus the initial amount of capital that is invested, or the entry cost
of the investment. A positive NPV signals an attractive capital investment
opportunity; a negative NPV means that the investment is substandard.


present value (PV)

This amount is calculated by discounting the future
cash returns from a capital investment. The discount rate usually is the
cost-of-capital rate for the business. If PV is more than the initial amount
of capital that has to be invested, the investment is attractive. If less,
then better investment alternatives should be found.


Book Value

The value of an asset as carried on the balance sheet of a
company. In reference to the value of a company, it is the net worth
(equity) of the company.


Book Value per Share

The book value of a company divided by the number of shares
outstanding


Expected Value

The value of the possible outcomes of a variable weighted by the
probabilities of each outcome


Face Value

The nominal value of a security. Also called the par value.


Future Value

The amount a given payment, or series of payments, will be worth
at the end of a specified time period, if invested at a given rate



 

 

 

 

 

 

Related to : financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.


Copyright© 2024 www.finance-lib.com