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Definition of downsizing

Downsizing Image 1

downsizing

any management action that reduces employment
upon restructuring operations in response to competitive
pressures



Related Terms:

Abusive Earnings Management

The use of various forms of gimmickry to distort a company's true financial performance in order to achieve a desired result.


Abusive Earnings Management

A characterization used by the Securities and Exchange
Commission to designate earnings management that results in an intentional and material misrepresentation
of results.


activity-based management (ABM)

a discipline that focuses on the activities incurred during the production/performance process as the way to improve the value received
by a customer and the resulting profit achieved by providing
this value


Adjusted Cash Flow Provided by Continuing Operations

Cash flow provided by operating
activities adjusted to provide a more recurring, sustainable measure. Adjustments to reported cash
provided by operating activities are made to remove such nonrecurring cash items as: the operating
component of discontinued operations, income taxes on items classified as investing or financing activities, income tax benefits from nonqualified employee stock options, the cash effects of purchases and sales of trading securities for nonfinancial firms, capitalized expenditures, and other nonrecurring cash inflows and outflows.


Asset/liability management

Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
institution to accomplish the two goals of a financial institution:
1) to earn an adequate return on funds invested, and
2) to maintain a comfortable surplus of assets beyond liabilities.



Blue-chip company

Large and creditworthy company.


Bottom-up equity management style

A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic
and market cycles, focusing instead on the analysis of individual stocks.


Downsizing Image 1

Cash flow from operations

A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations
(disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing
securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus non-cash expenses that were deducted in calculating net
income.


CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATIONS

A section on the cash-flow Stockholders’ equity statement that shows how much cash came into a company and how much went out during the normal course of business.


Cash management bill

Very short maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash
balances are down and it needs money for a few days.


Cash transaction

A transaction where exchange is immediate, as contrasted to a forward contract, which
calls for future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price.


Certified Management Accountant (CMA)

a professional designation in the area of management accounting that
recognizes the successful completion of an examination,
acceptable work experience, and continuing education requirements


Collection fractions

The percentage of a given month's sales collected during the month of sale and each
month following the month of sale.


Company Acquisitions

Assets acquired to create money. May include plant, machinery and equipment, shares of another company etc.


company cost of capital

Expected rate of return demanded by investors in a company, determined by the average risk of the company’s assets and operations.


Company-specific risk

Related: Unsystematic risk


Downsizing Image 2

Companyspecific Risk

See asset-specific risk


Competitive Advantage

The strategies, skills, knowledge, resources or competencies that differentiate a business from its competitors.



Competitive bidding

A securities offering process in which securities firms submit competing bids to the
issuer for the securities the issuer wishes to sell.


Competitive offering

An offering of securities through competitive bidding.


Corporate financial management

The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.


Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.


cost management system (CMS)

a set of formal methods
developed for planning and controlling an organization’s
cost-generating activities relative to its goals and objectives
cost object anything to which costs attach or are related


Coupon

The periodic interest payment made to the bondholders during the life of the bond.


Coupon

Detachable certificate attached to a bond that shows the amount of
interest payable at regular intervals, usually semi-annually.Originally
coupons were actually attached to the bonds and had to be cut off or “clipped”
to redeem them and receive the interest payment.


coupon

The interest payments paid to the bondholder.


Coupon

The annual interest payment associated with a bond.


Downsizing Image 3

Coupon Bond

any bond with a coupon. Contrast with discount bond.



Coupon / Coupons

The periodic interest payment(s) made by the issuer of a bond
(debt security). Calculated by multiplying the face value of the
security by the coupon rate.


Coupon dates

The dates when the coupons are paid. Typically a bond pays
coupons annually or semi-annually.


Coupon equivalent yield

True interest cost expressed on the basis of a 365-day year.


Coupon payments

A bond's interest payments.


Coupon rate

In bonds, notes or other fixed income securities, the stated percentage rate of interest, usually
paid twice a year.


Coupon Rate

The rate of interest paid on a debt security. Generally stated on an
annual basis, even if the payments are made at some other
interval.


Coupon rate

The nominal interest rate that the issuer promises to pay the
buyer of a bond.


coupon rate

Annual interest payment as a percentage of face value.


Current coupon

A bond selling at or close to par, that is, a bond with a coupon close to the yields currently
offered on new bonds of a similar maturity and credit risk.


Current-coupon issues

Related: Benchmark issues


Cyclical Unemployment

Unemployment that increases when the economy enters a recession and decreases when the economy enters a boom.


Demand Management Policy

Fiscal or monetary policy designed to influence aggregate demand for goods and services.


Depository Trust Company (DTC)

DTC is a user-owned securities depository which accepts deposits of
eligible securities for custody, executes book-entry deliveries and records book-entry pledges of securities in
its custody, and provides for withdrawals of securities from its custody.


Direct-Response Advertising

Advertising designed to elicit sales to customers who can be
shown to have responded specifically to the advertising in the past. Such costs can be capitalized
when persuasive historical evidence permits formulation of a reliable estimate of the future revenue
that can be obtained from incremental advertising expenditures.


Discontinued Operations

Net income and the gain or loss on disposal of a business segment whose assets and operations are clearly distinguishable from the other assets and operations of an entity.


Dupont system of financial control

Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
of the profit margin and asset turnover.


Earnings Management

The active manipulation of earnings toward a predetermined target.
That target may be one set by management, a forecast made by analysts, or an amount that is consistent
with a smoother, more sustainable earnings stream. Often, although not always, earnings
management entails taking steps to reduce and “store” profits during good years for use during
slower years. This more limited form of earnings management is known as income smoothing.


Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA)

A federal Act requiring employers to pay a tax on the wages paid to their employees, which is then used to create a
pool of funds to be used for unemployment benefits.


Finance Company

Company engaged in making loans to individuals or businesses. Unlike a bank, it does not receive deposits from the public.


fractional interest discount

the combined discounts for lack of control and marketability. g the constant growth rate in cash flows or net income used in the ADF, Gordon model, or present value factor.


Fractional Reserve Banking

A banking system in which banks hold only a fraction of their outstanding deposits in cash or on deposit with the central bank.


Frictional Unemployment

Unemployment associated with people changing jobs or quitting to search for new jobs.


Full coupon bond

A bond with a coupon equal to the going market rate, thereby, the bond is selling at par.


Full Employment

The level of employment corresponding to the natural rate of unemployment.


Full-Employment Output

The level of output produced by the economy when operating at the natural rate of unemployment.


Funds From Operations (FFO)

Used by real estate and other investment trusts to define the cash flow from
trust operations. It is earnings with depreciation and amortization added back. A similar term increasingly
used is Funds Available for Distribution (FAD), which is FFO less capital investments in trust property and
the amortization of mortgages.


Going-private transactions

Publicly owned stock in a firm is replaced with complete equity ownership by a
private group. The shares are delisted from stock exchanges and can no longer be purchased in the open
markets.


High-coupon bond refunding

Refunding of a high-coupon bond with a new, lower coupon bond.


Highly leveraged transaction (HLT)

Bank loan to a highly leveraged firm.


Holding company

A corporation that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and
operations by influencing or electing its board of directors.


Income from Continuing Operations

After-tax net income before discontinued operations,
extraordinary items, and the cumulative effect of changes in accounting principle.


Income statement (statement of operations)

A statement showing the revenues, expenses, and income (the
difference between revenues and expenses) of a corporation over some period of time.


Institute of Management Accountants (IMA)

an organization composed of individuals interested in the field of management accounting; it coordinates the Certified management
Accountant program through its affiliate organization
(the Institute of Certified management Accountants)


Institutionally Induced Unemployment

Unemployment due to institutional phenomena such as the degree of labor force unionization, the level of discrimination, and government policies such as unemployment insurance programs, minimum wages, or regulations on business.


Insurance Company

A firm licensed to sell insurance to the public.


Intercompany loan

Loan made by one unit of a corporation to another unit of the same corporation.


Intercompany transaction

Transaction carried out between two units of the same corporation.


Lag response of prepayments

There is typically a lag of about three months between the time the weighted
average coupon of an MBS pool has crossed the threshold for refinancing and an acceleration in prepayment
speed is observed.


Level-coupon bond

Bond with a stream of coupon payments that are the same throughout the life of the bond.


limited liability company

an organizational form that is a hybrid of the corporate and partnership organizational
forms and used to limit the personal liability of the owners;
it is typically used by small professional (such as accounting) firms


Long coupons

1) Bonds or notes with a long current maturity.
2) A bond on which one of the coupon periods, usually the first, is longer than the other periods or the standard period.


Long coupons

1) Bonds or notes with a long current maturity.
2) A bond on which one of the coupon
periods, usually the first, is longer than the other periods or the standard period.


Low-coupon bond refunding

Refunding of a low coupon bond with a new, higher coupon bond.


Management

management refers to the individuals in an entity that have the authority and the responsibility to manage the entity. The positions of these individuals, and their titles, vary from one entity to another and, to some extent, from one country to another depending on the local laws and customs. Thus, when the context requires it, the term includes the board of directors or committees of the board which are designated to oversee certain matters (e.g., audit committee).


Management accounting

The production of financial and non-financial information used in planning for the future; making decisions about products, services, prices and what costs to incur; and ensuring that plans are implemented and achieved.


management accounting

a discipline that includes almost
all manipulations of financial information for use by managers
in performing their organizational functions and in
assuring the proper use and handling of an entity’s resources;
it includes the discipline of cost accounting


Management Accounting Guidelines (MAGs)

pronouncements of the Society of management Accountants of
Canada that advocate appropriate practices for specific
management accounting situations


Management buyout (MBO)

Leveraged buyout whereby the acquiring group is led by the firm's management.


management buyout (MBO)

Acquisition of the firm by its own management in a leveraged buyout.


Management/closely held shares

Percentage of shares held by persons closely related to a company, as
defined by the Securities and exchange commission. Part of these percentages often is included in
Institutional Holdings -- making the combined total of these percentages over 100. There is overlap as
institutions sometimes acquire enough stock to be considered by the SEC to be closely allied to the company.


management control

This is difficult to define in a few words—indeed, an
entire chapter is devoted to the topic (Chapter 17). The essence of management
control is “keeping a close watch on everything.” anything can
go wrong and get out of control. management control can be thought of
as the follow-through on decisions to ensure that the actual outcomes
happen according to purposes and goals of the management decisions
that set things in motion. Managers depend on feedback control reports
that contain very detailed information. The level of detail and range of
information in these control reports is very different from the summarylevel
information reported in external income statements.


management control system (MCS)

an information system that helps managers gather information about actual organizational occurrences, make comparisons against plans,
effect changes when they are necessary, and communicate
among appropriate parties; it should serve to guide organizations
in designing and implementing strategies so that
organizational goals and objectives are achieved


management expense ratio (MER)

The total expenses expressed as an annualized percentage of daily average net assets. MER does not include brokerage fees and commissions, which are also payable by the Fund.


Management fee

An investment advisory fee charged by the financial advisor to a fund based on the fund's
average assets, but sometimes determined on a sliding scale that declines as the dollar amount of the fund increases.


management fee

The fee paid to the fund’s manager for supervising the administration of the fund.


management information system (MIS)

a structure of interrelated elements that collects, organizes, and communicates
data to managers so they may plan, control, evaluate
performance, and make decisions; the emphasis of the
MIS is on internal demands for information rather than external
demands; some or all of the MIS may be computerized
for ease of access to information, reliability of input
and processing, and ability to simulate outcomes of
alternative situations


management style

the preference of a manager in how he/she interacts with other stakeholders in the organization;
it influences the way the firm engages in transactions and
is manifested in managerial decisions, interpersonal and
interorganizational relationships, and resource allocations


Money management

Related: Investment management.


Natural Rate of Unemployment (NRU)

The level of unemployment characterizing the economy in long-run equilibrium, determined by the levels of frictional, structural, and institutionally induced unemployment. At this rate of unemployment, inflation should be constant, so it is sometimes called the nonaccelerating inflation rate of unemployment, or NAIRU.


Net Cash after Operations

Cash flow available for debt service—the payment of interest and principal on loans. Generally calculated as cash provided by operating activities before interest
expense.


Noncompetitive bid

In a Treasury auction, bidding for a specific amount of securities at the price, whatever it
may turn out to be, equal to the average price of the accepted competitive bids.


open-book management

a philosophy about increasing a firm’s performance by involving all workers and by ensuring
that all workers have access to operational and financial
information necessary to achieve performance improvements


Open-Market Operations

Buying or selling of bonds by the central bank.


Operational Earnings Management

management actions taken in the effort to create stable
financial performance by acceptable, voluntary business decisions. An example: a special discount
promotion to increase flagging sales near the end of a quarter when targets are not being met.


operations flow document

a document listing all operations
necessary to produce one unit of product (or perform
a specific service) and the corresponding time allowed
for each operation


Overreaction hypothesis

The supposition that investors overreact to unanticipated news, resulting in
exaggerated movement in stock prices followed by corrections.


Parent company

A company that retains control over one or more other companies.


Pass-through coupon rate

The interest rate paid on a securitized pool of assets, which is less than the rate
paid on the underlying loans by an amount equal to the servicing and guaranteeing fees.


Passive investment management

Buying a well-diversified portfolio to represent a broad-based market
index without attempting to search out mispriced securities.


Perfectly competitive financial markets

Markets in which no trader has the power to change the price of
goods or services. Perfect capital markets are characterized by the following conditions: 1) trading is costless,
and access to the financial markets is free, 2) information about borrowing and lending opportunities is freely
available, 3) there are many traders, and no single trader can have a significant impact on market prices.


performance management system

a system reflecting the entire package of decisions regarding performance measurement and evaluation


Picking transaction

Withdrawing parts or subassemblies from stock in order to
manufacture subassemblies or finished products.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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