Financial Terms
Effective margin (EM)

Main Page

Alphabetical
Index

SEARCH


Information about financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.

 


Main Page: tax advisor, business, credit, financial advisor, stock trading, investment, financial, finance,

Definition of Effective margin (EM)

Effective Margin (EM) Image 1

Effective margin (EM)

Used with SAT performance measures, the amount equaling the net earned spread, or
margin, of income on the assets in excess of financing costs for a given interest rate and prepayment rate
scenario.



Related Terms:

control premium

the additional value inherent in the control interest as contrasted to a minority interest, which reflects its power of control


Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.


After-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income to net sales.


Agency problem

Conflicts of interest among stockholders, bondholders, and managers.


Announcement date

Date on which particular news concerning a given company is announced to the public.
Used in event studies, which researchers use to evaluate the economic impact of events of interest.



Asset/liability management

Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
institution to accomplish the two goals of a financial institution:
1) to earn an adequate return on funds invested, and
2) to maintain a comfortable surplus of assets beyond liabilities.


Asset substitution problem

Arises when the stockholders substitute riskier assets for the firm's existing
assets and expropriate value from the debtholders.


Effective Margin (EM) Image 2

Assets requirements

A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
proposed uses of net working capital.


Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

An international bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which
serves as a forum for monetary cooperation among several European central banks, the Bank of Japan, and the
U.S. Federal Reserve System. Founded in 1930 to handle the German payment of World War I reparations, it
now monitors and collects data on international banking activity and promulgates rules concerning
international bank regulation.


Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.


Bond agreement

A contract for privately placed debt.


Bottom-up equity management style

A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic
and market cycles, focusing instead on the analysis of individual stocks.


Bretton Woods Agreement

An agreement signed by the original United Nations members in 1944 that
established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the post-World War II international monetary system
of fixed exchange rates.


Buy on margin

A transaction in which an investor borrows to buy additional shares, using the shares
themselves as collateral.


Cash deficiency agreement

An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency the project may experience.


Cash management bill

Very short maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash
balances are down and it needs money for a few days.


Effective Margin (EM) Image 3

Cash settlement contracts

Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving
the delivery of the underlying.


Cash-equivalent items

Temporary investments of currently excess cash in short-term, high-quality
investment media such as treasury bills and Banker's Acceptances.



Clearing House Automated Payments System (CHAPS)

A computerized clearing system for sterling funds
that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the
clearing companies within the structure of the Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS).


Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)

An international wire transfer system for high-value
payments operated by a group of major banks.


Clearing member

A member firm of a clearing house. Each clearing member must also be a member of the
exchange. Not all members of the exchange, however, are members of the clearing organization. All trades of
a non-clearing member must be registered with, and eventually settled through, a clearing member.


Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee

The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s Performance Presentation Standards Implementation
Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise and update the AIMR Performance
Presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS(TM)) for portfolio performance presentations.


Concession agreement

An understanding between a company and the host government that specifies the
rules under which the company can operate locally.


Contribution margin

The difference between variable revenue and variable cost.


Controlled disbursement

A service that provides for a single presentation of checks each day (typically in
the early part of the day).


Convention statement

An annual statement filed by a life insurance company in each state where it does
business in compliance with that state's regulations. The statement and supporting documents show, among
other things, the assets, liabilities, and surplus of the reporting company.


Conversion premium

The percentage by which the conversion price in a convertible security exceeds the
prevailing common stock price at the time the convertible security is issued.


Corporate financial management

The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.



Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.


Counterpart items

In the balance of payments, counterpart items are analogous to unrequited transfers in the
current account. They arise because the double-entry system in balance of payments accounting and refer to
adjustments in reserves owing to monetization or demonetization of gold, allocation or cancellation of SDRs,
and revaluation of the various components of total reserves.


Credit enhancement

Purchase of the financial guarantee of a large insurance company to raise funds.


Debt displacement

The amount of borrowing that leasing displaces. Firms that do a lot of leasing will be
forced to cut back on borrowing.


Default premium

A differential in promised yield that compensates the investor for the risk inherent in
purchasing a corporate bond that entails some risk of default.


Demand deposits

Checking accounts that pay no interest and can be withdrawn upon demand.


Demand line of credit

A bank line of credit that enables a customer to borrow on a daily or on-demand basis.


Demand master notes

Short-term securities that are repayable immediately upon the holder's demand.


Demand shock

An event that affects the demand for goods in services in the economy.


Direct placement

Selling a new issue not by offering it for sale publicly, but by placing it with one of several
institutional investors.


Disbursement float

A decrease in book cash but no immediate change in bank cash, generated by checks
written by the firm.


Dollar safety margin

The dollar equivalent of the safety cushion for a portfolio in a contingent immunization
strategy.


Double-tax agreement

Agreement between two countries that taxes paid abroad can be offset against
domestic taxes levied on foreign dividends.


Dupont system of financial control

Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
of the profit margin and asset turnover.


Effective annual interest rate

An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of
compounding.


Effective annual yield

Annualized interest rate on a security computed using compound interest techniques.


Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.


Effective convexity

The convexity of a bond calculated with cash flows that change with yields.


Effective date

In an interest rate swap, the date the swap begins accruing interest.


Effective duration

The duration calculated using the approximate duration formula for a bond with an
embedded option, reflecting the expected change in the cash flow caused by the option. Measures the
responsiveness of a bond's price taking into account the expected cash flows will change as interest rates
change due to the embedded option.


Effective rate

A measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of compounding.


Effective spread

The gross underwriting spread adjusted for the impact of the announcement of the common
stock offering on the firm's share price.


Embedded option

An option that is part of the structure of a bond that provides either the bondholder or
issuer the right to take some action against the other party, as opposed to a bare option, which trades
separately from any underlying security.


Emerging markets

The financial markets of developing economies.


Employee stock fund

A firm-sponsored program that enables employees to purchase shares of the firm's
common stock on a preferential basis.


Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)

A company contributes to a trust fund that buys stock on behalf of
employees.


Enhancement

An innovation that has a positive impact on one or more of a firm's existing products.


Equity contribution agreement

An agreement to contribute equity to a project under certain specified
conditions.


European Monetary System (EMS)

An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that involves the currencies
of European Union member countries.


Exempt securities

Instruments exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 or the
margin requirements of the SEC Act of 1934. Such securities include government bonds, agencies, munis,
commercial paper, and private placements.


Federal Reserve System

The central bank of the U.S., established in 1913, and governed by the Federal
Reserve Board located in Washington, D.C. The system includes 12 Federal Reserve Banks and is authorized
to regulate monetary policy in the U.S. as well as to supervise Federal Reserve member banks, bank holding
companies, international operations of U.S.banks, and U.S.operations of foreign banks.


Fiscal agency agreement

An alternative to a bond trust deed. Unlike the trustee, the fiscal agent acts as an
agent of the borrower.


Fisher's separation theorem

The firm's choice of investments is separate from its owner's attitudes towards
investments. Also refered to as portfolio separation theorem.


Forward premium

A currency trades at a forward premium when its forward price is higher than its spot price.


Forward rate agreement (FRA)

Agreement to borrow or lend at a specified future date at an interest rate
that is fixed today.


GEMs (growing-equity mortgages)

Mortgages in which annual increases in monthly payments are used to
reduce outstanding principal and to shorten the term of the loan.


Good delivery and settlement procedures

Refers to PSA Uniform Practices such as cutoff times on delivery
of securities and notification, allocation, and proper endorsement.


Gross profit margin

Gross profit divided by sales, which is equal to each sales dollar left over after paying
for the cost of goods sold.


Hedging demands

Demands for securities to hedge particular sources of consumption risk, beyond the usual
mean-variance diversification motivation.


Homemade dividend

Sale of some shares of stock to get cash that would be similar to receiving a cash dividend.


Homemade leverage

Idea that as long as individuals borrow (or lend) on the same terms as the firm, they can
duplicate the affects of corporate leverage on their own. Thus, if levered firms are priced too high, rational
investors will simply borrow on personal accounts to buy shares in unlevered firms.


Immediate settlement

Delivery and settlement of securities within five business days.


Imputation tax system

Arrangement by which investors who receive a dividend also receive a tax credit for
corporate taxes that the firm has paid.


Income statement (statement of operations)

A statement showing the revenues, expenses, and income (the
difference between revenues and expenses) of a corporation over some period of time.


Incremental cash flows

Difference between the firm's cash flows with and without a project.


Incremental costs and benefits

Costs and benefits that would occur if a particular course of action were
taken compared to those that would occur if that course of action were not taken.


Incremental internal rate of return

IRR on the incremental investment from choosing a large project
instead of a smaller project.


Initial margin requirement

When buying securities on margin, the proportion of the total market value of
the securities that the investor must pay for in cash. The Security Exchange Act of 1934 gives the board of
governors of the Federal Reserve the responsibility to set initial margin requirements, but individual
brokerage firms are free to set higher requirements. In futures contracts, initial margin requirements are set by
the exchange.


Interest rate agreement

An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the
other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined
level (the strike rate).


Interest rate parity theorem

Interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the difference
between the forward foreign exchange rate and the spot rate.


Joint clearing members

Firms that clear on more than one exchange.


Just-in-time inventory systems

Systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.


Liquidity premium

Forward rate minus expected future short-term interest rate.


Maintenance margin requirement

A sum, usually smaller than -but part of the original margin, which must
be maintained on deposit at all times. If a customer's equity in any futures position drops to, or under, the
maintenance margin level, the broker must issue a margin call for the amount at money required to restore the
customer's equity in the account to the original margin level. Related: margin, margin call.


Management/closely held shares

Percentage of shares held by persons closely related to a company, as
defined by the Securities and exchange commission. Part of these percentages often is included in
Institutional Holdings -- making the combined total of these percentages over 100. There is overlap as
institutions sometimes acquire enough stock to be considered by the SEC to be closely allied to the company.


Management buyout (MBO)

Leveraged buyout whereby the acquiring group is led by the firm's management.


Management fee

An investment advisory fee charged by the financial advisor to a fund based on the fund's
average assets, but sometimes determined on a sliding scale that declines as the dollar amount of the fund increases.


Mangement's discussion

A report from management to the shareholders that accompanies the firm's
financial statements in the annual report. This report explains the period's financial results and enables
management to discuss other ideas that may not be apparent in the financial statements in the annual report.


Mandatory redemption schedule

Schedule according to which sinking fund payments must be made.


Margin

This allows investors to buy securities by borrowing money from a broker. The margin is the
difference between the market value of a stock and the loan a broker makes. Related: security deposit (initial).


Margin account (Stocks)

A leverageable account in which stocks can be purchased for a combination of
cash and a loan. The loan in the margin account is collateralized by the stock and, if the value of the stock
drops sufficiently, the owner will be asked to either put in more cash, or sell a portion of the stock. margin
rules are federally regulated, but margin requirements and interest may vary among broker/dealers.


Margin call

A demand for additional funds because of adverse price movement. Maintenance margin
requirement, security deposit maintenance
margin of safety With respect to working capital management, the difference between 1) the amount of longterm
financing, and 2) the sum of fixed assets and the permanent component of current assets.


Margin requirement (Options)

The amount of cash an uncovered (naked) option writer is required to
deposit and maintain to cover his daily position valuation and reasonably foreseeable intra-day price changes.


Marginal

Incremental.


Marginal tax rate

The tax rate that would have to be paid on any additional dollars of taxable income earned.


Materials requirement planning

Computer-based systems that plan backward from the production schedule
to make purchases in order to manage inventory levels.


Mathematical programming

An operations research technique that solves problems in which an optimal
value is sought subject to specified constraints. Mathematical programming models include linear
programming, quadratic programming, and dynamic programming.


Measurement error

Errors in measuring an explanatory variable in a regression that leads to biases in
estimated parameters.


Membership

or a seat on the exchange A limited number of exchange positions that enable the holder to
trade for the holder's own accounts and charge clients for the execution of trades for their accounts.


Money management

Related: Investment management.


Money market demand account

An account that pays interest based on short-term interest rates.



 

 

 

 

 

 

Related to : financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.


Copyrightę 2024 www.finance-lib.com