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degree of operating leverage (DOL)

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Definition of degree of operating leverage (DOL)

Degree Of Operating Leverage (DOL) Image 1

degree of operating leverage (DOL)

Percentage change in profits given a 1 percent change in sales.



Related Terms:

45-Degree Line

A line representing equilibrium in the goods and services market, on a diagram with aggregate demand on the vertical axis and aggregate supply on the horizontal axis.


Annual fund operating expenses

For investment companies, the management fee and "other expenses,"
including the expenses for maintaining shareholder records, providing shareholders with financial statements,
and providing custodial and accounting services. For 12b-1 funds, selling and marketing costs are included.


cash flow from operating activities, or cash flow from profit

This equals the cash inflow from sales during the period minus the cash
outflow for expenses during the period. Keep in mind that to measure
net income, generally accepted accounting principles require the use of
accrual-basis accounting. Starting with the amount of accrual-basis net
income, adjustments are made for changes in accounts receivable,
inventories, prepaid expenses, and operating liabilities—and depreciation
expense is added back (as well as any other noncash outlay
expense)—to arrive at cash flow from profit, which is formally labeled
cash flow from operating activities in the externally reported statement
of cash flows.


Cash Flow Provided by Operating Activities

With some exceptions, the cash effects of transactions
that enter into the determination of net income, such as cash receipts from sales of goods
and services and cash payments to suppliers and employees for acquisitions of inventory and
expenses.


Constant dollar accounting

A method for restating financial statements by reducing or
increasing reported revenues and expenses by changes in the consumer price index,
thereby achieving greater comparability between accounting periods.



Constant dollars

See real dollars.


Current Dollars

A variable like GDP is measured in current dollars if each year's value is measured in prices prevailing during that year. In contrast, when measured in real or constant dollars, each year's value is measured in a base year's prices.


Degree Of Operating Leverage (DOL) Image 2

Debt leverage

The amplification of the return earned on equity when an investment or firm is financed
partially with borrowed money.


degree of operating leverage

a factor that indicates how a percentage change in sales, from the existing or current
level, will affect company profits; it is calculated as contribution
margin divided by net income; it is equal to (1 - margin of safety percentage)


Dollar bonds

Municipal revenue bonds for which quotes are given in dollar prices. Not to be confused with
"U.S. dollar" bonds, a common term of reference in the Eurobond market.


Dollar Cost Averaging

A way of smoothing out your investment deposits by investing regularly. Instead of making one large deposit a year into your RRSP, you make smaller regular monthly deposits. If you are buying units in a mutual fund or segregated equity fund, you would end up buying more units in the month that values were low and less units in the month that values were higher. By spreading out your purchases, you don't have to worry about buying at the right time.


dollar days (of inventory)

a measurement of the value of inventory for the time that inventory is held


Dollar duration

The product of modified duration and the initial price.


Dollar price of a bond

Percentage of face value at which a bond is quoted.


Dollar return

The return realized on a portfolio for any evaluation period, including (1) the change in market
value of the portfolio and (2) any distributions made from the portfolio during that period.


Dollar roll

Similar to the reverse repurchase agreement - a simultaneous agreement to sell a security held in a
portfolio with purchase of a similar security at a future date at an agreed-upon price.


Degree Of Operating Leverage (DOL) Image 3

Dollar safety margin

The dollar equivalent of the safety cushion for a portfolio in a contingent immunization
strategy.


Dollar-weighted rate of return

Also called the internal rate of return, the interest rate that will make the
present value of the cash flows from all the subperiods in the evaluation period plus the terminal market value
of the portfolio equal to the initial market value of the portfolio.



Eurodollar

This is an American dollar that has been deposited in a European bank or an U.S. bank branch
located in Europe. It got there as a result of payments made to overseas companies for merchandise.


Eurodollar bonds

Eurobonds denominated in U.S.dollars.


eurodollars

dollars held on deposit in a bank outside the United States.


Eurodollars

Deposits denominated in U.S. dollars but held in banks located outside the United States, such as in Canada or France.


Financial leverage

Use of debt to increase the expected return on equity. Financial leverage is measured by
the ratio of debt to debt plus equity.


financial leverage

The equity (ownership) capital of a business can serve
as the basis for securing debt capital (borrowing money). In this way, a
business increases the total capital available to invest in its assets and
can make more sales and more profit. The strategy is to earn operating
profit, or earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT), on the capital
supplied from debt that is more than the interest paid on the debt capital.
A financial leverage gain equals the EBIT earned on debt capital
minus the interest on the debt. A financial leverage gain augments earnings
on equity capital. A business must earn a rate of return on its assets
(ROA) that is greater than the interest rate on its debt to make a financial
leverage gain. If the spread between its ROA and interest rate is unfavorable,
a business suffers a financial leverage loss.


financial leverage

Debt financing amplifies the effects of changes in operating income on the returns to stockholders.


Financial leverage clientele

A group of investors who have a preference for investing in firms that adhere to
a particular financial leverage policy.


Financial leverage ratios

Related: capitalization ratios.


Degree Of Operating Leverage (DOL) Image 4

Fixed-dollar obligations

Conventional bonds for which the coupon rate is set as a fixed percentage of the par value.



Fixed-dollar security

A nonnegotiable debt security that can be redeemed at some fixed price or according to
some schedule of fixed values, e.g., bank deposits and government savings bonds.


Highly leveraged transaction (HLT)

Bank loan to a highly leveraged firm.


Homemade leverage

Idea that as long as individuals borrow (or lend) on the same terms as the firm, they can
duplicate the affects of corporate leverage on their own. Thus, if levered firms are priced too high, rational
investors will simply borrow on personal accounts to buy shares in unlevered firms.


Leverage

The use of debt financing.


Leverage

he use of debt financing.


Leverage

The relationship between interest bearing debt and equity in a company(financial leverage) or the effect of fixed expense on after tax earnings(operating leverage).


Leverage clientele

A group of shareholders who, because of their personal leverage, seek to invest in
corporations that maintain a compatible degree of corporate leverage.


Leverage ratios

Measures of the relative contribution of stockholders and creditors, and of the firm's ability
to pay financing charges. Value of firm's debt to the total value of the firm.


Leverage rebalancing

Making transactions to adjust (rebalance) a firm's leverage ratio back to its target.


Leveraged beta

The beta of a leveraged required return; that is, the beta as adjusted for the degree of
leverage in the firm's capital structure.


Leveraged buyout

The purchase of one business entity by another, largely using borrowed
funds. The borrowings are typically paid off through the future cash flow of
the purchased entity.


Leveraged buyout (LBO)

A transaction used for taking a public corporation private financed through the use
of debt funds: bank loans and bonds. Because of the large amount of debt relative to equity in the new
corporation, the bonds are typically rated below investment grade, properly referred to as high-yield bonds or
junk bonds. Investors can participate in an LBO through either the purchase of the debt (i.e., purchase of the
bonds or participation in the bank loan) or the purchase of equity through an LBO fund that specializes in
such investments.


leveraged buyout (LBO)

Acquisition of the firm by a private group using substantial borrowed funds.


Leveraged equity

Stock in a firm that relies on financial leverage. Holders of leveraged equity face the
benefits and costs of using debt.


Leveraged lease

A lease arrangement under which the lessor borrows a large proportion of the funds needed
to purchase the asset and grants the lender a lien on the assets and a pledge of the lease payments to secure the
borrowing.


Leveraged portfolio

A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed.


Leveraged portfolio

A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed.


Leveraged required return

The required return on an investment when the investment is financed partially by debt.


Net benefit to leverage factor

A linear approximation of a factor, T*, that enables one to operationalize the
total impact of leverage on firm value in the capital market imperfections view of capital structure.


Net operating losses

Losses that a firm can take advantage of to reduce taxes.


Net operating margin

The ratio of net operating income to net sales.


operating activities

Includes all the sales and expense activities of a business.
But the term is very broad and inclusive; it is used to embrace all
types of activities engaged in by profit-motivated entities toward the
objective of earning profit. A bank, for instance, earns net income not
from sales revenue but from loaning money on which it receives interest
income. Making loans is the main revenue operating activity of banks.


operating budget

a budget expressed in both units and dollars


Operating cash flow

Earnings before depreciation minus taxes. It measures the cash generated from
operations, not counting capital spending or working capital requirements.


operating cash flow

See cash flow from operating activities.


Operating Cash Flow

Income available after the payment of taxes, plus the value of the
non-cash expenses


Operating cycle

The average time intervening between the acquisition of materials or services and the final
cash realization from those acquisitions.


Operating Earnings

A term frequently used to describe earnings after the removal of the
effects of nonrecurring or nonoperating items.


Operating expense

Any expense associated with the general, sales, and administrative
functions of a business.


OPERATING EXPENSES

The total amount that was spent to run a company this year.


Operating Expenses

The amount of money the company must spend on overhead, distribution, taxes, underwriting the risk and servicing the policy. It is a factor in calculating premium rates.


Operating exposure

degree to which exchange rate changes, in combination with price changes, will alter a
company's future operating cash flows.


Operating income

The net income of a business, less the impact of any financial activity,
such as interest expense or investment income, as well as taxes and extraordinary
items.


Operating Income

A measure of results produced by the core operations of a firm. It is common
for both recurring and nonrecurring items that are associated with operations to be included
in this measure. operating income is typically found in multistep income statements and is a pretax
measure.


Operating lease

Short-term, cancelable lease. A type of lease in which the period of contract is less than the
life of the equipment and the lessor pays all maintenance and servicing costs.


Operating lease

The rental of an asset from a lessor, but not under terms that would
qualify it as a capital lease.


Operating Lease

One where the risks and benefits, as well as ownership, stays with the lessor.


Operating leverage

Fixed operating costs, so-called because they accentuate variations in profits.


operating leverage

A relatively small percent increase or decrease in
sales volume that causes a much larger percent increase or decrease in
profit because fixed expenses do not change with small changes in sales
volume. Sales volume changes have a lever effect on profit. This effect
should be called sales volume leverage, but in practice it is called operating
leverage.
operating liabilities
The short-term liabilities generated by the operating
(profit-making) activities of a business. Most businesses have three types
of operating liabilities: accounts payable from inventory purchases and
from incurring expenses, accrued expenses payable for unpaid expenses,
and income tax payable. These short-term liabilities of a business are
non-interest-bearing, although if not paid on time a business may be
assessed a late-payment penalty that is in the nature of an interest
charge.


operating leverage

the proportionate relationship between
a company’s variable and fixed costs


operating leverage

degree to which costs are fixed.


Operating Line of Credit

A bank's commitment to make loans to a particular borrower up to a specified maximum for a specified period, usually one year.


Operating Loan

A loan advanced under an operating line of credit.


Operating profit

The profit made by the business for an accounting period, equal to gross profit less selling, finance, administration etc. expenses, but before deducting interest or taxation.


operating profit

See earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT).


Operating profit margin

The ratio of operating margin to net sales.


Operating risk

The inherent or fundamental risk of a firm, without regard to financial risk. The risk that is
created by operating leverage. Also called business risk.


operating risk (business risk)

Risk in firm’s operating income.


Short-run operating activities

Events and decisions concerning the short-term finance of a firm, such as
how much inventory to order and whether to offer cash terms or credit terms to customers.


Soft dollars

The value of research services that brokerage houses supply to investment managers "free of
charge" in exchange for the investment manager's business/commissions.


Split Dollar Life Insurance

The split dollar concept is usually associated with cash value life insurance where there is a death benefit and an accumulation of cash value. The basic premise is the sharing of the costs and benefits of a life insurance policy by two or more parties. Usually one party owns and pays for the insurance protection and the other owns and pays for the cash accumulation. There is no single way to structure a split dollar arrangement. The possible structures are limited only by the imagination of the parties involved.


Total dollar return

The dollar return on a nondollar investment, which includes the sum of any
dividend/interest income, capital gains or losses, and currency gains or losses on the investment.
See also: total return.


Unleveraged beta

The beta of an unleveraged required return (i.e. no debt) on an investment when the
investment is financed entirely by equity.


Unleveraged required return

The required return on an investment when the investment is financed entirely
by equity (i.e. no debt).


margin of safety

the excess of the budgeted or actual sales
of a company over its breakeven point; it can be calculated
in units or dollars or as a percentage; it is equal to
(1 - degree of operating leverage)



 

 

 

 

 

 

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