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Definition of Debt leverage
The amplification of the return earned on equity when an investment or firm is financed
An offset to the accounts receivable balance, against which
An account receivable that cannot be collected.
The amount of accounts receivable that is not expected to be collected.
Refers to accounts receivable from credit sales to customers
The cost of debt (bonds, loans, etc.) that a company is charged for
Borrowings from financiers.
Funds owed to another entity.
Ability to borrow. The amount a firm can borrow up to the point where the firm value no
An assessment of ability and willingness to repay a loan from anticipated future cash flow or other sources.
Money, goods or services that someone is obligated to pay someone else in accordance with an expressed or implied agreement. debt may or may not be secured.
The amount of borrowing that leasing displaces. Firms that do a lot of leasing will be
Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided
A comparison of debt to equity in a company's capital structure.
Raising loan capital through the creation of debt by issuing a form of paper evidencing amounts owed and payable on specified dates or on demand.
An asset requiring fixed dollar payments, such as a government or corporate bond.
Any financial asset corresponding to a debt, such as a bond or a treasury bill.
A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to incur additional indebtedness.
The market for trading debt instruments.
Total debt divided by total assets.
The percentage of debt that is used in the total capitalization of a
Reducing the principal and/or interest payments on LDC loans.
IOUs created through loan-type transactions - commercial paper, bank CDs, bills, bonds, and
A security representing a debt relationship with an enterprise, including a government
Interest payment plus repayments of principal to creditors, that is, retirement of debt.
Debt-service coverage ratio
Earnings before interest and income taxes plus one-third rental charges, divided
Debt service parity approach
An analysis wherein the alternatives under consideration will provide the firm
A set of transactions (also called a debt-equity swap) in which a firm buys a country's dollar bank
A widely used financial statement ratio to assess the
Debtor in possession
A firm that is continuing to operate under Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.
New debt obtained by a firm during the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.
Sales to customers who have bought goods or services on credit but who have not yet paid their debt.
degree of operating leverage
a factor that indicates how a percentage change in sales, from the existing or current
degree of operating leverage (DOL)
Percentage change in profits given a 1 percent change in sales.
Use of debt to increase the expected return on equity. Financial leverage is measured by
The equity (ownership) capital of a business can serve
debt financing amplifies the effects of changes in operating income on the returns to stockholders.
Financial leverage clientele
A group of investors who have a preference for investing in firms that adhere to
Financial leverage ratios
Related: capitalization ratios.
Firm's net value of debt
Total firm value minus total firm debt.
debt maturing after more than one year.
debt with more than 1 year remaining to maturity.
Highly leveraged transaction (HLT)
Bank loan to a highly leveraged firm.
Idea that as long as individuals borrow (or lend) on the same terms as the firm, they can
Interest rate on debt
The firm's cost of debt capital.
Junior debt (subordinate debt)
debt whose holders have a claim on the firm's assets only after senior
The use of debt financing.
he use of debt financing.
The relationship between interest bearing debt and equity in a company(financial leverage) or the effect of fixed expense on after tax earnings(operating leverage).
A group of shareholders who, because of their personal leverage, seek to invest in
Measures of the relative contribution of stockholders and creditors, and of the firm's ability
Making transactions to adjust (rebalance) a firm's leverage ratio back to its target.
The beta of a leveraged required return; that is, the beta as adjusted for the degree of
The purchase of one business entity by another, largely using borrowed
Leveraged buyout (LBO)
A transaction used for taking a public corporation private financed through the use
leveraged buyout (LBO)
Acquisition of the firm by a private group using substantial borrowed funds.
Stock in a firm that relies on financial leverage. Holders of leveraged equity face the
A lease arrangement under which the lessor borrows a large proportion of the funds needed
A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed.
A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed.
Leveraged required return
The required return on an investment when the investment is financed partially by debt.
An obligation having a maturity of more than one year from the date it was issued. Also
A debt for which payments will be required for a period of more than
Long Term Debt
Liability due in a year or more.
Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
Long-term debt ratio
The ratio of long-term debt to total capitalization.
Long-term debt to equity ratio
A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.
Refers to non-conventional debt that has a greater element of risk than secured debt but has less risk than equity.
MM's proposition I (debt irrelevance proposition)
The value of a firm is unaffected by its capital structure.
Monetizing the Debt
See printing money.
The debt owed by the government as a result of earlier borrowing to finance budget deficits. That part of the debt not held by the central bank is the publically held national debt.
Net benefit to leverage factor
A linear approximation of a factor, T*, that enables one to operationalize the
Fixed operating costs, so-called because they accentuate variations in profits.
A relatively small percent increase or decrease in
the proportionate relationship between
Degree to which costs are fixed.
Original issue discount debt (OID debt)
debt that is initially offered at a price below par.
See national debt.
Publicly Held National Debt
See national debt.
RATIO OF DEBT TO STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
A ratio that shows which group—creditors or stockholders—has the biggest stake in or the most control of a company:
debt that, in the event of default, has first claim on specified assets.
debt that has first claim on specified collateral in the event of default.
debt that, in the event of bankruptcy, must be repaid before subordinated debt receives any payment.
Are debt instruments that provide financing, take primary security against either specific or all assets of the borrower, have fixed terms of repayment and charge fixed or floating interest rates.
debt that has been customized for the buyer, often by incorporating unusual options.
debt over which senior debt takes priority. In the event of bankruptcy, subordinated
debt that may be repaid in bankruptcy only after senior debt is paid.
debt instruments that provide financing for acquisitions, expansion and restructuring, take secondary security against assets, have fixed or flexible terms of repayment and charge fixed or floating interest rates.
Total debt to equity ratio
A capitalization ratio comparing current liabilities plus long-term debt to
Total Debt to Total Assets Ratio
See debt ratio
debt maturing within one year (short-term debt). See: funded debt.
The beta of an unleveraged required return (i.e. no debt) on an investment when the
Unleveraged required return
The required return on an investment when the investment is financed entirely
debt that does not identify specific assets that can be taken over by the debtholder in case of default.
Bankruptcy cost view
The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other
The mix of the various types of debt and equity capital maintained by a firm. The more debt capital a firm has in its capital structure, the more highly leveraged the firm is considered to be.
Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
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