Financial Terms Debt Ratio

# Definition of Debt Ratio

## Debt Ratio

The percentage of debt that is used in the total capitalization of a
company. It is calculated by dividing the total book value of the
debt by the book value of all assets.

## Debt ratio

Total debt divided by total assets.

# Related Terms:

## Long-term debt ratio

The ratio of long-term debt to total capitalization.

## Debt/equity ratio

Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided
by shareholders. Determined by dividing long-term debt by common stockholder equity.

## Debt-service coverage ratio

Earnings before interest and income taxes plus one-third rental charges, divided
by interest expense plus one-third rental charges plus the quantity of principal repayments divided by one
minus the tax rate.

## Long-term debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.

## Total debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing current liabilities plus long-term debt to
shareholders' equity.

## RATIO OF DEBT TO STOCKHOLDERSâ€™ EQUITY

A ratio that shows which groupâ€”creditors or stockholdersâ€”has the biggest stake in or the most control of a company:
(Total liabilities) / (Stockholdersâ€™ equity)

## debt-to-equity ratio

A widely used financial statement ratio to assess the
overall debt load of a business and its capital structure, it equals total liabilities
divided by total ownersâ€™ equity. Both numbers for this ratio are
taken from a businessâ€™s latest balance sheet. There is no standard, or
generally agreed on, maximum ratio, such as 1:1 or 2:1. Every industry
is different in this regard. Some businesses, such as financial institutions,
have very high debt-to-equity ratios. In contrast, many businesses
use very little debt relative to their ownersâ€™ equity.

See debt ratio

## Debt/Equity Ratio

A comparison of debt to equity in a company's capital structure.

## Acid-test ratio

Also called the quick ratio, the ratio of current assets minus inventories, accruals, and prepaid
items to current liabilities.

## Appraisal ratio

The signal-to-noise ratio of an analyst's forecasts. The ratio of alpha to residual standard
deviation.

## Articles of incorporation

Legal document establishing a corporation and its structure and purpose.

## Asset/equity ratio

The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity.

## Asset activity ratios

ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.

## Capital rationing

Placing one or more limits on the amount of new investment undertaken by a firm, either
by using a higher cost of capital, or by setting a maximum on parts of, and/or the entirety of, the capital
budget.

## Capitalization ratios

Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. Capitalization ratios can be
interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.

## Cash flow coverage ratio

The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments,
preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental
payments, and depreciation.

## Cash flow from operations

A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations
(disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing
securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus non-cash expenses that were deducted in calculating net
income.

## Cash ratio

The proportion of a firm's assets held as cash.

## Common stock ratios

ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
(cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.

## Concentration account

A single centralized account into which funds collected at regional locations
(lockboxes) are transferred.

## Concentration services

Movement of cash from different lockbox locations into a single concentration
account from which disbursements and investments are made.

## Controlled foreign corporation (CFC)

A foreign corporation whose voting stock is more than 50% owned
by U.S. stockholders, each of whom owns at least 10% of the voting power.

## Conversion ratio

The number of shares of common stock that the security holder will receive from
exercising the call option of a convertible security.

## Corporation

A legal "person" that is separate and distinct from its owners. A corporation is allowed to own
assets, incur liabilities, and sell securities, among other things.

## Cost-benefit ratio

The net present value of an investment divided by the investment's initial cost. Also called
the profitability index.

## Coverage ratios

ratios used to test the adequacy of cash flows generated through earnings for purposes of
meeting debt and lease obligations, including the interest coverage ratio and the fixed charge coverage ratio.

## Current ratio

Indicator of short-term debt paying ability. Determined by dividing current assets by current
liabilities. The higher the ratio, the more liquid the company.

## Customary payout ratios

A range of payout ratios that is typical based on an analysis of comparable firms.

## Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.

Money borrowed.

## Debt capacity

Ability to borrow. The amount a firm can borrow up to the point where the firm value no
longer increases.

## Debt displacement

The amount of borrowing that leasing displaces. Firms that do a lot of leasing will be
forced to cut back on borrowing.

## Debt instrument

An asset requiring fixed dollar payments, such as a government or corporate bond.

## Debt leverage

The amplification of the return earned on equity when an investment or firm is financed
partially with borrowed money.

## Debt limitation

A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to incur additional indebtedness.

## Debt market

The market for trading debt instruments.

## Debt relief

Reducing the principal and/or interest payments on LDC loans.

## Debt securities

IOUs created through loan-type transactions - commercial paper, bank CDs, bills, bonds, and
other instruments.

## Debt service

Interest payment plus repayments of principal to creditors, that is, retirement of debt.

## Debt service parity approach

An analysis wherein the alternatives under consideration will provide the firm
with the exact same schedule of after-tax debt payments (including both interest and principal).

## Debt swap

A set of transactions (also called a debt-equity swap) in which a firm buys a country's dollar bank
debt at a discount and swaps this debt with the central bank for local currency that it can use to acquire local
equity.

## Debtor in possession

A firm that is continuing to operate under Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.

## Debtor-in-possession financing

New debt obtained by a firm during the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.

## Declaration date

The date on which a firm's directors meet and announce the date and amount of the next
dividend.

## Dividend payout ratio

Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends.

## Dollar duration

The product of modified duration and the initial price.

## Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
export activities.

## Duration

A common gauge of the price sensitivity of an asset or portfolio to a change in interest rates.

Plowback rate.

## Edge corporations

Specialized banking institutions, authorized and chartered by the Federal Reserve Board
in the U.S., which are allowed to engage in transactions that have a foreign or international character. They
are not subject to any restrictions on interstate banking. Foreign banks operating in the U.S. are permitted to
organize and own and Edge corporation.

## Effective duration

The duration calculated using the approximate duration formula for a bond with an
embedded option, reflecting the expected change in the cash flow caused by the option. Measures the
responsiveness of a bond's price taking into account the expected cash flows will change as interest rates
change due to the embedded option.

## Expense ratio

The percentage of the assets that were spent to run a mutual fund (as of the last annual
statement). This includes expenses such as management and advisory fees, overhead costs and 12b-1
(distribution and advertising ) fees. The expense ratio does not include brokerage costs for trading the
portfolio, although these are reported as a percentage of assets to the SEC by the funds in a Statement of
Additional Information (SAI). the SAI is available to shareholders on request. Neither the expense ratio or the
SAI includes the transaction costs of spreads, normally incurred in unlisted securities and foreign stocks.
These two costs can add significantly to the reported expenses of a fund. The expense ratio is often termed an
Operating Expense ratio (OER).

## Expiration

The time when the option contract ceases to exist (expires).

## Expiration cycle

An expiration cycle relates to the dates on which options on a particular security expire. A
given option will be placed in 1 of 3 cycles, the January cycle, the February cycle, or the March cycle. At any
point in time, an option will have contracts with 4 expiration dates outstanding, 2 in near-term months and 2
in far-term months.

## Expiration date

The last day (in the case of American-style) or the only day (in the case of European-style)
on which an option may be exercised. For stock options, this date is the Saturday immediately following the
3rd Friday of the expiration month; however, brokerage firms may set an earlier deadline for notification of
an option holder's intention to exercise. If Friday is a holiday, the last trading day will be the preceding
Thursday.

## Feasible target payout ratios

Payout ratios that are consistent with the availability of excess funds to make
cash dividend payments.

## Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

A federal institution that insures bank deposits.

## Financial leverage ratios

Related: capitalization ratios.

## Financial ratio

The result of dividing one financial statement item by another. ratios help analysts interpret
financial statements by focussing on specific relationships.

## Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.

## Fisher's separation theorem

The firm's choice of investments is separate from its owner's attitudes towards
investments. Also refered to as portfolio separation theorem.

## Fixed asset turnover ratio

The ratio of sales to fixed assets.

## Fixed-charge coverage ratio

A measure of a firm's ability to meet its fixed-charge obligations: the ratio of
(net earnings before taxes plus interest charges paid plus long-term lease payments) to (interest charges paid
plus long-term lease payments).

## Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC)

A special type of corporation created by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 that
is designed to provide a tax incentive for exporting U.S.-produced goods.

## Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation)

A Congressionally chartered corporation that
purchases residential mortgages in the secondary market from S&Ls, banks, and mortgage bankers and
securitizes these mortgages for sale into the capital markets.

## Funded debt

debt maturing after more than one year.

## Funding ratio

The ratio of a pension plan's assets to its liabilities.

## Funds From Operations (FFO)

Used by real estate and other investment trusts to define the cash flow from
trust operations. It is earnings with depreciation and amortization added back. A similar term increasingly
used is Funds Available for Distribution (FAD), which is FFO less capital investments in trust property and
the amortization of mortgages.

## Hard capital rationing

Capital rationing that under no circumstances can be violated.

## Hedge ratio (delta)

The ratio of volatility of the portfolio to be hedged and the return of the volatility of the
hedging instrument.

## Income statement (statement of operations)

A statement showing the revenues, expenses, and income (the
difference between revenues and expenses) of a corporation over some period of time.

## Interest coverage ratio

The ratio of the earnings before interest and taxes to the annual interest expense. This
ratio measures a firm's ability to pay interest.

## Interest rate on debt

The firm's cost of debt capital.

## Irrational call option

The implied call imbedded in the MBS. Identified as irrational because the call is
sometimes not exercised when it is in the money (interest rates are below the threshold to refinance).
Sometimes exercised when not in the money (home sold without regard to the relative level of interest rates).

## Junior debt (subordinate debt)

debt whose holders have a claim on the firm's assets only after senior
debtholder's claims have been satisfied. Subordinated debt.

## Leverage ratios

Measures of the relative contribution of stockholders and creditors, and of the firm's ability
to pay financing charges. Value of firm's debt to the total value of the firm.

## Liquidity ratios

ratios that measure a firm's ability to meet its short-term financial obligations on time.

## Long-term debt

An obligation having a maturity of more than one year from the date it was issued. Also
called funded debt.

## Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.

## Low price-earnings ratio effect

The tendency of portfolios of stocks with a low price-earnings ratio to
outperform portfolios consisting of stocks with a high price-earnings ratio.

## Liquidity ratios

ratios that measure a firm's ability to meet its short-term financial obligations on time.

## Macaulay duration

The weighted-average term to maturity of the cash flows from the bond, where the
weights are the present value of the cash flow divided by the price.

## Market value ratios

ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.

## Market-book ratio

Market price of a share divided by book value per share.

## Modified duration

The ratio of Macaulay duration to (1 + y), where y = the bond yield. Modified duration is
inversely related to the approximate percentage change in price for a given change in yield.

## Mortgage duration

A modification of standard duration to account for the impact on duration of MBSs of
changes in prepayment speed resulting from changes in interest rates. Two factors are employed: one that
reflects the impact of changes in prepayment speed or price.

## Mortgage-Backed Securities Clearing Corporation

A wholly owned subsidiary of the Midwest Stock
Exchange that operates a clearing service for the comparison, netting, and margining of agency-guaranteed
MBSs transacted for forward delivery.

## Multinational corporation

A firm that operates in more than one country.

## Negative duration

A situation in which the price of the MBS moves in the same direction as interest rates.

## Open-market operation

Purchase or sale of government securities by the monetary authorities to increase or
decrease the domestic money supply.

## Open-market purchase operation

A systematic program of repurchasing shares of stock in market
transactions at current market prices, in competition with other prospective investors.

## Operationally efficient market

Also called an internally efficient market, one in which investors can obtain
transactions services that reflect the true costs associated with furnishing those services.

## Original issue discount debt (OID debt)

debt that is initially offered at a price below par.

## P/E ratio (PE ratio / multiple)

Assume XYZ Co. sells for \$25.50 per share and has earned \$2.55 per share this year; \$25. 50 = 10
times \$2. 55
XYZ stock sells for 10 times earnings. P/E = Current stock price divided by trailing annual earnings per
share or expected annual earnings per share.

## Payout ratio

Generally, the proportion of earnings paid out to the common stockholders as cash dividends.
More specifically, the firm's cash dividend divided by the firm's earnings in the same reporting period.

## Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC)

A federal agency that insures the vested benefits of
pension plan participants (established in 1974 by the ERISA legislation).

## Portfolio separation theorem

An investor's choice of a risky investment portfolio is separate from his
attitude towards risk. Related:Fisher's separation theorem.