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Debt service

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Definition of Debt service

Debt Service Image 1

Debt service

Interest payment plus repayments of principal to creditors, that is, retirement of debt.



Related Terms:

Debt-service coverage ratio

Earnings before interest and income taxes plus one-third rental charges, divided
by interest expense plus one-third rental charges plus the quantity of principal repayments divided by one
minus the tax rate.


Debt service parity approach

An analysis wherein the alternatives under consideration will provide the firm
with the exact same schedule of after-tax debt payments (including both interest and principal).


Economic risk

In project financing, the risk that the project's output will not be salable at a price that will
cover the project's operating and maintenance costs and its debt service requirements.


Equivalent loan

Given the after-tax stream associated with a lease, the maximum amount of conventional
debt that the same period-by-period after-tax debt service stream is capable of supporting.


Net Cash after Operations

Cash flow available for debt service—the payment of interest and principal on loans. Generally calculated as cash provided by operating activities before interest
expense.



Production payment financing

A method of nonrecourse asset-based financing in which a specified
percentage of revenue realized from the sale of the project's output is used to pay debt service.


Allowance for bad debts

An offset to the accounts receivable balance, against which
bad debts are charged. The presence of this allowance allows one to avoid severe
changes in the period-to-period bad debt expense by expensing a steady amount to
the allowance account in every period, rather than writing off large bad debts to
expense on an infrequent basis.


Debt Service Image 2

Bad debt

An account receivable that cannot be collected.


Bad debts

The amount of accounts receivable that is not expected to be collected.


bad debts

Refers to accounts receivable from credit sales to customers
that a business will not be able to collect (or not collect in full). In hindsight,
the business shouldn’t have extended credit to these particular
customers. Since these amounts owed to the business will not be collected,
they are written off. The accounts receivable asset account is
decreased by the estimated amount of uncollectible receivables, and the
bad debts expense account is increased this amount. These write-offs
can be done by the direct write-off method, which means that no
expense is recorded until specific accounts receivable are identified as
uncollectible. Or the allowance method can be used, which is based on
an estimated percent of bad debts from credit sales during the period.
Under this method, a contra asset account is created (called allowance
for bad debts) and the balance of this account is deducted from the
accounts receivable asset account.


Concentration services

Movement of cash from different lockbox locations into a single concentration
account from which disbursements and investments are made.


Cost of Debt

The cost of debt (bonds, loans, etc.) that a company is charged for
borrowing funds. A component of the cost of capital.


Debt

Money borrowed.


Debt

Borrowings from financiers.


Debt

Funds owed to another entity.


Debt capacity

Ability to borrow. The amount a firm can borrow up to the point where the firm value no
longer increases.


Debt Service Image 3

Debt Capacity

An assessment of ability and willingness to repay a loan from anticipated future cash flow or other sources.


Debt (Credit Insurance)

Money, goods or services that someone is obligated to pay someone else in accordance with an expressed or implied agreement. debt may or may not be secured.



Debt displacement

The amount of borrowing that leasing displaces. Firms that do a lot of leasing will be
forced to cut back on borrowing.


Debt/equity ratio

Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided
by shareholders. Determined by dividing long-term debt by common stockholder equity.


Debt/Equity Ratio

A comparison of debt to equity in a company's capital structure.


Debt Financing

Raising loan capital through the creation of debt by issuing a form of paper evidencing amounts owed and payable on specified dates or on demand.


Debt instrument

An asset requiring fixed dollar payments, such as a government or corporate bond.


Debt Instrument

Any financial asset corresponding to a debt, such as a bond or a treasury bill.


Debt leverage

The amplification of the return earned on equity when an investment or firm is financed
partially with borrowed money.


Debt limitation

A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to incur additional indebtedness.


Debt market

The market for trading debt instruments.


Debt Service Image 4

Debt ratio

Total debt divided by total assets.



Debt Ratio

The percentage of debt that is used in the total capitalization of a
company. It is calculated by dividing the total book value of the
debt by the book value of all assets.


Debt relief

Reducing the principal and/or interest payments on LDC loans.


Debt securities

IOUs created through loan-type transactions - commercial paper, bank CDs, bills, bonds, and
other instruments.


Debt Security

A security representing a debt relationship with an enterprise, including a government
security, municipal security, corporate bond, convertible debt issue, and commercial
paper.


Debt swap

A set of transactions (also called a debt-equity swap) in which a firm buys a country's dollar bank
debt at a discount and swaps this debt with the central bank for local currency that it can use to acquire local
equity.


debt-to-equity ratio

A widely used financial statement ratio to assess the
overall debt load of a business and its capital structure, it equals total liabilities
divided by total owners’ equity. Both numbers for this ratio are
taken from a business’s latest balance sheet. There is no standard, or
generally agreed on, maximum ratio, such as 1:1 or 2:1. Every industry
is different in this regard. Some businesses, such as financial institutions,
have very high debt-to-equity ratios. In contrast, many businesses
use very little debt relative to their owners’ equity.


Debtor in possession

A firm that is continuing to operate under Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.


Debtor-in-possession financing

New debt obtained by a firm during the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.


Debtors

Sales to customers who have bought goods or services on credit but who have not yet paid their debt.


Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.


Full-service lease

Also called rental lease. Lease in which the lessor promises to maintain and insure the
equipment leased.


Funded debt

debt maturing after more than one year.


funded debt

debt with more than 1 year remaining to maturity.


grade (of product or service)

the addition or removal of product
or service characteristics to satisfy additional needs, especially price


Index Portfolio Rebalancing Service (IPRS)

Index Portfolio Rebalancing service (IPRS) is a comprehensive investment service that can help increase potential returns while reducing volatility. Several portfolios are available, each with its own strategic balance of Index Funds. IPRS maintains your personal asset allocation by monitoring and rebalancing your portfolio semi-annually.


Information services

Organizations that furnish investment and other types of information, such as
information that helps a firm monitor its cash position.


Interest rate on debt

The firm's cost of debt capital.


Internal Revenue Service

A federal agency empowered by Congress to interpret and enforce tax-related laws.


Junior debt (subordinate debt)

debt whose holders have a claim on the firm's assets only after senior
debtholder's claims have been satisfied. Subordinated debt.


Long-term debt

An obligation having a maturity of more than one year from the date it was issued. Also
called funded debt.


Long-term debt

A debt for which payments will be required for a period of more than
one year into the future.


Long Term Debt

Liability due in a year or more.


Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.


Long-term debt ratio

The ratio of long-term debt to total capitalization.


Long-term debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.


McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act of 1965

A federal Act requiring federal contractors to pay those employees working on a federal contract at
least as much as the wage and benefit levels prevailing locally.


Mezzanine Debt

Refers to non-conventional debt that has a greater element of risk than secured debt but has less risk than equity.


MM's proposition I (debt irrelevance proposition)

The value of a firm is unaffected by its capital structure.


Monetizing the Debt

See printing money.


National Debt

The debt owed by the government as a result of earlier borrowing to finance budget deficits. That part of the debt not held by the central bank is the publically held national debt.


Non-financial services

Include such things as freight, insurance, passenger services, and travel.


Original issue discount debt (OID debt)

debt that is initially offered at a price below par.


Product/service mix

See sales mix.


Public Debt

See national debt.


Publicly Held National Debt

See national debt.


RATIO OF DEBT TO STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

A ratio that shows which group—creditors or stockholders—has the biggest stake in or the most control of a company:
(Total liabilities) / (Stockholders’ equity)


Secured debt

debt that, in the event of default, has first claim on specified assets.


secured debt

debt that has first claim on specified collateral in the event of default.


Senior debt

debt that, in the event of bankruptcy, must be repaid before subordinated debt receives any payment.


Senior Debt

Are debt instruments that provide financing, take primary security against either specific or all assets of the borrower, have fixed terms of repayment and charge fixed or floating interest rates.


service company

an individual or firm engaged in a high or moderate degree of conversion that results in service output


service department

an organizational unit that provides one or more specific functional tasks for other internal units


Service Revenue

Revenue recognized from the provision of services as opposed to the sale of
products.


service time

the actual time consumed performing the functions
necessary to provide a service


Short-term investment services

services that assist firms in making short-term investments.


Structured debt

debt that has been customized for the buyer, often by incorporating unusual options.


Subordinated debt

debt over which senior debt takes priority. In the event of bankruptcy, subordinated
debtholders receive payment only after senior debt claims are paid in full.


subordinated debt

debt that may be repaid in bankruptcy only after senior debt is paid.


Subordinated Debt

debt instruments that provide financing for acquisitions, expansion and restructuring, take secondary security against assets, have fixed or flexible terms of repayment and charge fixed or floating interest rates.


Total debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing current liabilities plus long-term debt to
shareholders' equity.


Total Debt to Total Assets Ratio

See debt ratio


Trade debt

Accounts payable.


Unfunded debt

debt maturing within one year (short-term debt). See: funded debt.


Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994

A federal act that minimizes the impact on people serving in the Armed Forces
when they return to civilian employment by avoiding discrimination and increasing
their employment opportunities.


Unsecured debt

debt that does not identify specific assets that can be taken over by the debtholder in case of default.


accounts receivable

Short-term, non-interest-bearing debts owed to a
business by its customers who bought goods and services from the business
on credit. Generally, these debts should be collected within a month
or so. In a balance sheet, this asset is listed immediately after cash.
(Actually the amount of short-term marketable investments, if the business
has any, is listed after cash and before accounts receivable.)
Accounts receivable are viewed as a near-cash type of asset that will be
turned into cash in the short run. A business may not collect all of its
accounts receivable. See also bad debts.


Creditors

Purchases of goods or services from suppliers on credit to whom the debt is not yet paid. Or a
term used in the Balance Sheet to denote current liabilities.


Defeasance

Practice whereby the borrower sets aside cash or bonds sufficient to service the borrower's debt.
Both the borrower's debt and the offestting cash or bonds are removed from the balance sheet.


financing decision

a judgment made regarding the method
of raising funds that will be used to make acquisitions; it
is based on an entity’s ability to issue and service debt and
equity securities


Working capital

Current assets less current liabilities. Money that revolves in the business as part of the process of buying, making and selling goods and services, particularly in relation to debtors, creditors, inventory and bank.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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