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Definition of Controller

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Controller

The corporate manager responsible for the firm's accounting activities.


controller

the chief accountant (in a corporation) who is responsible
for maintaining and reporting on both the cost
and financial sets of accounts but does not handle or negotiate
changes in actual resources


controller

Officer responsible for budgeting, accounting, and auditing.



Related Terms:

chief financial officer (CFO)

Officer who oversees the treasurer and controller and sets overall financial strategy.


Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.


Accounting exposure

The change in the value of a firm's foreign currency denominated accounts due to a
change in exchange rates.



Accounting earnings

Earnings of a firm as reported on its income statement.


Accounting insolvency

Total liabilities exceed total assets. A firm with a negative net worth is insolvent on
the books.


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Accounting liquidity

The ease and quickness with which assets can be converted to cash.


Accounts payable

Money owed to suppliers.


Accounts receivable

Money owed by customers.


Accounts receivable turnover

The ratio of net credit sales to average accounts receivable, a measure of how
quickly customers pay their bills.


Acquisition of assets

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the selling firm's assets.


Actuals

The physical commodity underlying a futures contract. Cash commodity, physical.


Affirmative covenant

A bond covenant that specifies certain actions the firm must take.


Agency cost view

The argument that specifies that the various agency costs create a complex environment in
which total agency costs are at a minimum with some, but less than 100%, debt financing.


Agency costs

The incremental costs of having an agent make decisions for a principal.


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All-in cost

Total costs, explicit and implicit.


Articles of incorporation

Legal document establishing a corporation and its structure and purpose.



Assets

A firm's productive resources.


Assets requirements

A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
proposed uses of net working capital.


Average accounting return

The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average
book value of the investment during its life.


Average age of accounts receivable

The weighted-average age of all of the firm's outstanding invoices.


Average cost of capital

A firm's required payout to the bondholders and to the stockholders expressed as a
percentage of capital contributed to the firm. Average cost of capital is computed by dividing the total
required cost of capital by the total amount of contributed capital.


Bankruptcy cost view

The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other
benefits from leverage so that the optimal amount of leverage is less than 100% debt finaning.


Capital budgeting

The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.


Carring costs

costs that increase with increases in the level of investment in current assets.


Changes in Financial Position

Sources of funds internally provided from operations that alter a company's
cash flow position: depreciation, deferred taxes, other sources, and capital expenditures.


Confirmation

he written statement that follows any "trade" in the securities markets. Confirmation is issued
immediately after a trade is executed. It spells out settlement date, terms, commission, etc.



Controlled foreign corporation (CFC)

A foreign corporation whose voting stock is more than 50% owned
by U.S. stockholders, each of whom owns at least 10% of the voting power.


Corporate acquisition

The acquisition of one firm by anther firm.


Corporate bonds

Debt obligations issued by corporations.


Corporate charter

A legal document creating a corporation.


Corporate finance

One of the three areas of the discipline of finance. It deals with the operation of the firm
(both the investment decision and the financing decision) from that firm's point of view.


Corporate financial management

The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.


Corporate financial planning

financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both
long- and short-term financial plans.


Corporate processing float

The time that elapses between receipt of payment from a customer and the
depositing of the customer's check in the firm's bank account; the time required to process customer
payments.


Corporate tax view

The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes
debt a cheaper financing method.


Corporate taxable equivalent

Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.


Corporation

A legal "person" that is separate and distinct from its owners. A corporation is allowed to own
assets, incur liabilities, and sell securities, among other things.


Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.


Cost of capital

The required return for a capital budgeting project.


Cost of carry

Related: Net financing cost


Cost of funds

Interest rate associated with borrowing money.


Cost of lease financing

A lease's internal rate of return.


Cost of limited partner capital

The discount rate that equates the after-tax inflows with outflows for capital
raised from limited partners.


Cost-benefit ratio

The net present value of an investment divided by the investment's initial cost. Also called
the profitability index.


Country financial risk

The ability of the national economy to generate enough foreign exchange to meet
payments of interest and principal on its foreign debt.


Current assets

Value of cash, accounts receivable, inventories, marketable securities and other assets that
could be converted to cash in less than 1 year.


Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
export activities.


Dupont system of financial control

Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
of the profit margin and asset turnover.


Edge corporations

Specialized banking institutions, authorized and chartered by the Federal Reserve Board
in the U.S., which are allowed to engage in transactions that have a foreign or international character. They
are not subject to any restrictions on interstate banking. Foreign banks operating in the U.S. are permitted to
organize and own and Edge corporation.


Equivalent annual cost

The equivalent cost per year of owning an asset over its entire life.


Exchange of assets

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its assets in exchange for cash or stock.


Execution costs

The difference between the execution price of a security and the price that would have
existed in the absence of a trade, which can be further divided into market impact costs and market timing
costs.


Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

A federal institution that insures bank deposits.


Financial analysts

Also called securities analysts and investment analysts, professionals who analyze
financial statements, interview corporate executives, and attend trade shows, in order to write reports
recommending either purchasing, selling, or holding various stocks.


Financial assets

Claims on real assets.


Financial control

The management of a firm's costs and expenses in order to control them in relation to
budgeted amounts.


Financial distress

Events preceding and including bankruptcy, such as violation of loan contracts.


Financial distress costs

Legal and administrative costs of liquidation or reorganization. Also includes
implied costs associated with impaired ability to do business (indirect costs).


Financial engineering

Combining or dividing existing instruments to create new financial products.


Financial future

A contract entered into now that provides for the delivery of a specified asset in exchange
for the selling price at some specified future date.


Financial intermediaries

Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
traders.


Financial lease

Long-term, non-cancelable lease.


Financial leverage

Use of debt to increase the expected return on equity. financial leverage is measured by
the ratio of debt to debt plus equity.


Financial leverage clientele

A group of investors who have a preference for investing in firms that adhere to
a particular financial leverage policy.


Financial leverage ratios

Related: capitalization ratios.


Financial market

An organized institutional structure or mechanism for creating and exchanging financial assets.


Financial objectives

Objectives of a financial nature that the firm will strive to accomplish during the period
covered by its financial plan.


Financial plan

A financial blueprint for the financial future of a firm.


Financial planning

The process of evaluating the investing and financing options available to a firm. It
includes attempting to make optimal decisions, projecting the consequences of these decisions for the firm in
the form of a financial plan, and then comparing future performance against that plan.


Financial press

That portion of the media devoted to reporting financial news.


Financial ratio

The result of dividing one financial statement item by another. Ratios help analysts interpret
financial statements by focussing on specific relationships.


Financial risk

The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will not be adequate to meet its financial obligations.
Also referred to as the additional risk that a firm's stockholder bears when the firm utilizes debt and equity.


Firm

Refers to an order to buy or sell that can be executed without confirmation for some fixed period. Also,
a synonym for company.


Firm commitment underwriting

An undewriting in which an investment banking firm commits to buy the
entire issue and assumes all financial responsibility for any unsold shares.


Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.


Firm-specific risk

See:diversifiable risk or unsystematic risk.


Fixed cost

A cost that is fixed in total for a given period of time and for given production levels.


Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC)

A special type of corporation created by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 that
is designed to provide a tax incentive for exporting U.S.-produced goods.


Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation)

A Congressionally chartered corporation that
purchases residential mortgages in the secondary market from S&Ls, banks, and mortgage bankers and
securitizes these mortgages for sale into the capital markets.


Friction costs

costs, both implied and direct, associated with a transaction. Such costs include time, effort,
money, and associated tax effects of gathering information and making a transaction.


Generally Accepted Accounting Principals (GAAP)

A technical accounting term that encompasses the
conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted accounting practice at a particular time.


Group rotation manager

A top-down manager who infers the phases of the business cycle and allocates
assets accordingly.


Growth manager

A money manager who seeks to buy stocks that are typically selling at relatively high P/E
ratios due to high earnings growth, with the expectation of continued high or higher earnings growth.


Handle

The whole-dollar price of a bid or offer is referred to as the handle (ie. if a security is quoted at
101.10 bid and 101.11 offered, 101 is the handle). Traders are assumed to know the handle.


Incremental costs and benefits

costs and benefits that would occur if a particular course of action were
taken compared to those that would occur if that course of action were not taken.


Information costs

Transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset.
Related: search costs.


Intrinsic value of a firm

The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the
required rate of return.


Investment manager

Also called a portfolio manager and money manager, the individual who manages a
portfolio of investments.


IRA/Keogh accounts

Special accounts where you can save and invest, and the taxes are deferred until money
is withdrawn. These plans are subject to frequent changes in law with respect to the deductibility of
contributions. Withdrawals of tax deferred contributions are taxed as income, including the capital gains from
such accounts.


Lead manager

The commercial or investment bank with the primary responsibility for organizing syndicated
bank credit or bond issue. The lead manager recruits additional lending or underwriting banks, negotiates
terms of the issue with the issuer, and assesses market conditions.


London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
as well as futures-style options are traded.


Long-term assets

Value of property, equipment and other capital assets minus the depreciation. This is an
entry in the bookkeeping records of a company, usually on a "cost" basis and thus does not necessarily reflect
the market value of the assets.


Long-term financial plan

financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.


London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.


Managerial decisions

Decisions concerning the operation of the firm, such as the choice of firm size, firm
growth rates, and employee compensation.


Market impact costs

Also called price impact costs, the result of a bid/ask spread and a dealer's price concession.


Market timing costs

costs that arise from price movement of the stock during the time of the transaction
which is attributed to other activity in the stock.


Money manager

Related: Investment manager.


Mortgage-Backed Securities Clearing Corporation

A wholly owned subsidiary of the Midwest Stock
Exchange that operates a clearing service for the comparison, netting, and margining of agency-guaranteed
MBSs transacted for forward delivery.


Multinational corporation

A firm that operates in more than one country.


Neglected firm effect

The tendency of firms that are neglected by security analysts to outperform firms that
are the subject of considerable attention.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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