Financial Terms constraint

# Definition of constraint

## constraint

a restriction inhibiting the achievement of an objective

# Related Terms:

## environmental constraint

any limitation on strategy options
caused by external cultural, fiscal, legal/regulatory,
or political situations; a limiting factor that is not under the
direct control of an organizationâ€™s management; tend to be
fairly long-run in nature

## non-negativity constraint

a restriction in a linear programming
problem stating that negative values for physical
quantities cannot exist in a solution

## theory of constraints (TOC)

a method of analyzing the bottlenecks
(constraints) that keep a system from achieving
higher performance; it states that production cannot take
place at a rate faster than the slowest machine or person
in the process

## BONDPAR

A system that monitors and evaluates the performance of a fixed-income portfolio , as well as the
individual securities held in the portfolio. BONDPAR decomposes the return into those elements beyond the
manager's control--such as the interest rate environment and client-imposed duration policy constraints--and
those that the management process contributes to, such as interest rate management, sector/quality allocations,
and individual bond selection.

## Linear programming

Technique for finding the maximum value of some equation subject to stated linear constraints.

## Mathematical programming

An operations research technique that solves problems in which an optimal
value is sought subject to specified constraints. Mathematical programming models include linear
programming, quadratic programming, and dynamic programming.

## Restrictive covenants

Provisions that place constraints on the operations of borrowers, such as restrictions on
working capital, fixed assets, future borrowing, and payment of dividend.

## "Soft" Capital Rationing

Capital rationing that under certain circumstances can be violated or even viewed
as made up of targets rather than absolute constraints.

## capital rationing

a condition that exists when there is an
upper-dollar constraint on the amount of capital available
to commit to capital asset acquisition

## feasible region

the graphical space contained within and on
all of the constraint lines in the graphical solution to a linear
programming problem

## feasible solution

a solution to a linear programming problem
that does not violate any problem constraints

## imposed budget

a budget developed by top management
with little or no input from operating personnel; operating personnel are then informed of the budget objectives and constraints

## linear programming

a method of mathematical programming used to solve a problem that involves an objective function and multiple limiting factors or constraints long-term variable cost a cost that was traditionally viewed as a fixed cost

## simplex method

an iterative (sequential) algorithm used to solve multivariable, multiconstraint linear programming problems

## slack variable

a variable used in a linear programming problem
that represents the unused amount of a resource at
any level of operation; it is associated with less-than-orequal-
to constraints

## surplus variable

a variable used in a linear programming problem that represents overachievement of a minimum requirement; it is associated with greater-than-or-equal-to constraints