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slack variable

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Definition of slack variable

Slack Variable Image 1

slack variable

a variable used in a linear programming problem
that represents the unused amount of a resource at
any level of operation; it is associated with less-than-orequal-
to constraints



Related Terms:

budget slack

an intentional underestimation of revenues
and/or overestimation of expenses in a budgeting process
for the purpose of including deviations that are likely to
occur so that results will occur within budget limits


Continuous random variable

A random value that can take any fractional value within specified ranges, as
contrasted with a discrete variable.


decision variable

an unknown item for which a linear programming
problem is being solved


dependent variable

an unknown variable that is to be predicted
using one or more independent variables


Discrete random variable

A random variable that can take only a certain specified set of discrete possible
values - for example, the positive integers 1, 2, 3, . . .



Endogenous variable

A value determined within the context of a model.


Exogenous variable

A variable whose value is determined outside the model in which it is used. Also called
a parameter.


Slack Variable Image 2

financial slack

Ready access to cash or debt financing.


independent variable

a variable that, when changed, will
cause consistent, observable changes in another variable;
a variable used as the basis of predicting the value of a
dependent variable


key variable

a critical factor that management believes will
be a direct cause of the achievement or nonachievement
of the organizational goals and objectives


Normal random variable

A random variable that has a normal probability distribution.


Random variable

A function that assigns a real number to each and every possible outcome of a random experiment.


Semi-variable costs

Costs that have both fixed and variable components.


surplus variable

a variable used in a linear programming problem that represents overachievement of a minimum requirement; it is associated with greater-than-or-equal-to constraints


Variable

A value determined within the context of a model. Also called endogenous variable.


Variable annuities

Annuity contracts in which the issuer pays a periodic amount linked to the investment
performance of an underlying portfolio.


Slack Variable Image 3

Variable Annuity

A form of annuity policy under which the amount of each benefit is not guaranteed or specified. The amounts fluctuate according to the earnings of a separate investment account.


Variable cost

A cost that is directly proportional to the volume of output produced. When production is zero,
the variable cost is equal to zero.



Variable cost

A cost that increases or decreases in proportion with increases or decreases in the volume of production of goods or services.


variable cost

a cost that varies in total in direct proportion
to changes in activity; it is constant on a per unit basis


Variable cost

A cost that changes in amount in relation to changes in a related activity.
Variance
The difference between an actual measured result and a basis, such as a budgeted amount.


variable cost ratio

the proportion of each revenue dollar
represented by variable costs; computed as variable costs
divided by sales or as (1 - contribution margin ratio)


Variable costing

A method of costing in which only variable production costs are treated as product costs and in which all fixed (production and non-production) costs are treated as period costs.


variable costing

a cost accumulation and reporting method
that includes only variable production costs (direct material,
direct labor, and variable overhead) as inventoriable
or product costs; it treats fixed overhead as a period cost;
is not acceptable for external reporting and tax returns


variable costs

Costs that change as the level of output changes.


VARIABLE EXPENSES

Those that vary with the amount of goods you produce or sell. These may include utility bills, labor, etc.


variable expenses

Expenses that change with changes in either sales volume
or sales revenue, in contrast to fixed expenses that remain the same
over the short run and do not fluctuate in response to changes in sales
volume or sales revenue. See also revenue-driven expenses and unitdriven
expenses.


Slack Variable Image 4

Variable life insurance policy

A whole life insurance policy that provides a death benefit dependent on the
insured's portfolio market value at the time of death. Typically the company invests premiums in common
stocks, and hence variable life policies are referred to as equity-linked policies.



variable overhead efficiency variance

the difference between budgeted variable overhead based on actual input activity and variable overhead applied to production


variable overhead spending variance

the difference between total actual variable overhead and the budgeted amount of variable overhead based on actual input activity


Variable price security

A security, such as stocks or bonds, that sells at a fluctuating, market-determined price.


Variable rate CDs

Short-term certificate of deposits that pay interest periodically on roll dates. On each roll
date, the coupon on the CD is adjusted to reflect current market rates.


Variable rate loan

Loan made at an interest rate that fluctuates based on a base interest rate such as the
Prime Rate or LIBOR.


Variable rated demand bond (VRDB)

Floating rate bond that can be sold back periodically to the issuer.


Plug

A variable that handles financial slack in the financial plan.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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