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Definition of Complementary Policies
policies which enhance each other.
Related: Variable life
Capitalizing and reporting as assets significant portions of
The principles, bases, conventions, rules and procedures adopted by management in preparing and presenting financial statements.
The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project and abstracts from the
The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity.
A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic
The debt and/or equity mix that fund a firm's assets.
A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the manager purchases a
Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
A table showing the capitalization of a firm, which typically includes the amount of
Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided
A common term for convertible bonds because of their equity component and the
An international equity placement where the offering is split into two
Represents ownership interest in a firm. Also the residual dollar value of a futures trading account,
An agreement in which one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the other at
Also called a residual claim, a claim to a share of earnings after debt obligation have been
The simultaneous purchase of an equity floor and sale of an equity cap.
Equity contribution agreement
An agreement to contribute equity to a project under certain specified
An agreement in which one party agrees to pay the other at specific time periods if a specific
Used to refer to warrants because they are usually issued attached to privately placed bonds.
Total assets divided by total common stockholders' equity; the amount of total assets per
Securities that give the holder the right to buy or sell a specified number of shares of stock, at
A swap in which the cash flows that are exchanged are based on the total return on some stock
Those holding shares of the firm's equity.
Securities sold in the Euromarket. That is, securities initially sold to investors
Foreign equity market
That portion of the domestic equity market that represents issues floated by foreign companies.
GEMs (growing-equity mortgages)
Mortgages in which annual increases in monthly payments are used to
The balance of a margin account. Related: buying on margin, initial margin requirement.
Stock in a firm that relies on financial leverage. Holders of leveraged equity face the
Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
Long-term debt to equity ratio
A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.
The total dollar value of all outstanding shares. Computed as shares times current
Market capitalization rate
Expected return on a security. The market-consensus estimate of the appropriate
Preferred equity redemption stock (PERC)
Preferred stock that converts automatically into equity at a
Return on equity (ROE)
Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12
This is a company's total assets minus total liabilities. A company's net worth is the
Balance sheet item that includes the book value of ownership in the corporation. It
The residual claims that stockholders have against a firm's assets, calculated by
Stratified equity indexing
A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the stocks in the index
Top-down equity management style
A management style that begins with an assessment of the overall
Total debt to equity ratio
A capitalization ratio comparing current liabilities plus long-term debt to
RATE OF RETURN ON STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
The percentage return or profit that management made on each dollar stockholders invested in a company. Here’s how you figure it:
RATIO OF DEBT TO STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
A ratio that shows which group—creditors or stockholders—has the biggest stake in or the most control of a company:
STOCKHOLDERS’ (OR OWNERS’) EQUITY
The value of the owners’ interests in a company.
Funds raised from shareholders.
An account that reduces an equity account. An example is Treasury stock.
Amounts contributed to the company by the owners (contributed capital) plus the residual earnings of the business (retained earnings).
The total amount of contributed capital and retained earnings; synonymous with stockholders' equity.
The total amount of contributed capital and retained earnings; synonymous with shareholders’ equity.
capital structure, or capitalization
Terms that refer to the combination of
capitalization of costs
When a cost is recorded originally as an increase
A widely used financial statement ratio to assess the
Refers to one of the two basic sources of capital for a business, the
market capitalization, or market cap
Current market value per share of
Refers to the capital invested in a business by its shareowners
return on equity (ROE)
This key ratio, expressed as a percent, equals net
stockholders' equity, statement of changes in
Although often considered
Cost of Equity
Same as the cost of common stock. Sometimes viewed as the
Return on Common Equity Ratio
A measure of the percentage return earned on the value of the
The difference between the total of all recorded assets and liabilities on the balance
The total of all capital contributions and retained earnings on a business’s
Ownership. Common stock represents equity in a corporation.
A forceful and intentional choice and application of accounting principles
Aggressive Cost Capitalization
Cost capitalization that stretches the flexibility within generally
Accounting method for an equity security in cases where the investor has sufficient
An ownership interest in an enterprise, including preferred and common stock.
The residual interest or owners' claims on the assets of a corporation
The total amount of debt and equity issued by a company.
A discount rate used to find the present value of a series of future cash receipts. Sometimes called discount rate.
A comparison of debt to equity in a company's capital structure.
The net worth of a business, consisting of capital stock, capital (or paid-in) surplus (or retained earnings), and, occasionally, certain net worth reserves. Common equity is that part of the total net worth belonging to the common shareholders. Total equity includes preferred shareholders. The terms common stock, net worth, and common equity are frequently used interchangeably.
Refers to the investors percentage ownership of a company that can be re-acquired by the company, usually at a pre-determined amount.
Aggregate value of a corporation as determined by the market price of its total issued and outstanding stock.
Funds, other than paid-up capital and retained earnings, employed in a business and which will remain in a business as permanent capital.
Represents the total assets of a corporation less liabilities.
The net worth of a company. This represents the ownership interest of the shareholders (common and preferred) of a company. For this reason, shares or stocks are often known as equities.
Life insurance or annuity product in which the cash value and benefit level fluctuate according to the performance of an equity portfolio.
Through equity investment, investors gain part ownership of the corporation. The primary type of equity investment is corporate stock.
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