Definition of Capitalization
The debt and/or equity mix that fund a firm's assets.
The total amount of debt and equity issued by a company.
A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the manager purchases a
number of the largest-capitalized names in the index stock in proportion to their capitalization.
Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. capitalization ratios can be
interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.
A table showing the capitalization of a firm, which typically includes the amount of
capital obtained from each source - long-term debt and common equity - and the respective capitalization
Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.
The total dollar value of all outstanding shares. Computed as shares times current
market price. It is a measure of corporate size.
Expected return on a security. The market-consensus estimate of the appropriate
discount rate for a firm's cash flows.
Terms that refer to the combination of
capital sources that a business has tapped for investing in its assetsâ€”in
particular, the mix of its interest-bearing debt and its ownersâ€™ equity. In a
more sweeping sense, the terms also include appendages and other features
of the basic debt and equity instruments of a business. Such things
as stock options, stock warrants, and convertible features of preferred
stock and notes payable are included in the more inclusive sense of the
terms, as well as any debt-based and equity-based financial derivatives
issued by the business.
When a cost is recorded originally as an increase
to an asset account, it is said to be capitalized. This means that the outlay
is treated as a capital expenditure, which becomes part of the total
cost basis of the asset. The alternative is to record the cost as an expense
immediately in the period the cost is incurred. Capitalized costs refer
mainly to costs that are recorded in the long-term operating assets of a
business, such as buildings, machines, equipment, tools, and so on.
Current market value per share of
capital stock multiplied by the total number of capital stock shares outstanding
of a publicly owned business. This value often differs widely from
the book value of ownersâ€™ equity reported in a businessâ€™s balance sheet.
Capitalizing and reporting as assets significant portions of
expenditures, the realization of which require unduly optimistic assumptions.
Cost capitalization that stretches the flexibility within generally
accepted accounting principles beyond its intended limits, resulting in reporting as assets
items that more reasonably should have been expensed. The purpose of this activity is likely to
alter financial results and financial position in order to create a potentially misleading impression
of a firm's business performance or financial position.
A discount rate used to find the present value of a series of future cash receipts. Sometimes called discount rate.
Aggregate value of a corporation as determined by the market price of its total issued and outstanding stock.
Related: capitalization ratios.
The ratio of long-term debt to total capitalization.
Long-term debt to equity ratio
A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.
The tendency of small firms (in terms of total market capitalization) to outperform the
stock market (consisting of both large and small firms).
Total debt to equity ratio
A capitalization ratio comparing current liabilities plus long-term debt to
The percentage of debt that is used in the total capitalization of a
company. It is calculated by dividing the total book value of the
debt by the book value of all assets.
A fixed asset, something that is expected to have long-term usage within
a company, and which exceeds a minimum dollar amount (known as the capitalization
limit, or cap limit).
A purchase that has been recorded on the company books as an asset. The
grounds for capitalizing an item include a purchase price that is higher than a minimum
limit (known as the capitalization limit) and an estimated lifetime for the item
that will exceed one year.
An item with a longevity greater than one year, and which exceeds a companyâ€™s
minimum capitalization limit. It is not purchased with the intent of immediate
resale, but rather for productive use within a company.
This is any upgrade to leased property by a lessee that will be
usable for more than one year, and which exceeds the lesseeâ€™s capitalization limit.
It is recorded as a fixed asset and depreciated over a period no longer than the life
of the underlying lease.
Costs Capitalized in Stealth
A particularly egregious form of aggressive cost capitalization
where inappropriately capitalized costs are hidden within other unrelated account balances.
A method of accounting for petroleum exploration and development expenditures
that permits capitalization of all such expenditures, including those leading to productive
as well as nonproductive wells.
Successful Efforts Method
A method of accounting for petroleum exploration and development
expenditures that permits capitalization of expenditures only on successful projects.
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