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Definition of British clearers

British Clearers Image 1

British clearers

The large clearing banks that dominate deposit taking and short-term lending in the domestic
sterling market.



Related Terms:

American Depositary Receipts (ADRs)

Certificates issued by a U.S. depositary bank, representing foreign
shares held by the bank, usually by a branch or correspondent in the country of issue. One ADR may
represent a portion of a foreign share, one share or a bundle of shares of a foreign corporation. If the ADR's
are "sponsored," the corporation provides financial information and other assistance to the bank and may
subsidize the administration of the ADRs. "Unsponsored" ADRs do not receive such assistance. ADRs carry
the same currency, political and economic risks as the underlying foreign share; the prices of the two, adjusted for the SDR/ordinary ratio, are kept essentially identical by arbitrage. American depositary shares(ADSs) are
a similar form of certification.


Auction markets

markets in which the prevailing price is determined through the free interaction of
prospective buyers and sellers, as on the floor of the stock exchange.


Automated Clearing House (ACH)

A collection of 32 regional electronic interbank networks used to
process transactions electronically with a guaranteed one-day bank collection float.


Automated Clearing House (ACH)

A banking clearinghouse that processes direct
deposit transfers.


Bear market

Any market in which prices are in a declining trend.



bear market

A market in which stock or bond prices are generally
falling.


Bear Market

A prolonged period of falling stock market prices.


British Clearers Image 1

Black market

An illegal market.


Brokered market

A market where an intermediary offers search services to buyers and sellers.


Bull market

Any market in which prices are in an upward trend.


bull market

A market in which stock or bond prices are generally rising.


Bull Market

A prolonged period of rising stock market prices.


Bulldog market

The foreign market in the United Kingdom.


Canadian Deposit Insurance Corporation

Better known as CDIC, this is an organization which insures qualifying deposits and GICs at savings institutions, mainly banks and trust companys, which belong to the CDIC for amounts up to $60,000 and for terms of up to five years. Many types of deposits are not insured, such as mortgage-backed deposits, annuities of duration of more than five years, and mutual funds.


Capital market

The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).


Capital market

The market in which investors buy and sell shares of companies, normally associated with a Stock Exchange.


British Clearers Image 2

Capital Market

A market that specializes in trading long-term, relatively high risk
securities


Capital Market

The market in which savings are made available to those needing funds to undertake investment projects. A financial market in which longer-term (maturity greater than one year) bonds and stocks are traded.



Capital market efficiency

Reflects the relative amount of wealth wasted in making transactions. An efficient
capital market allows the transfer of assets with little wealth loss. See: efficient market hypothesis.


Capital market imperfections view

The view that issuing debt is generally valuable but that the firm's
optimal choice of capital structure is a dynamic process that involves the other views of capital structure (net
corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), which result from considerations of
asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs.


Capital market line (CML)

The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.


capital markets

markets for long-term financing.


Cash markets

Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security
or instrument.
Related: derivative markets.


Certificate of deposit (CD)

Also called a time deposit, this is a certificate issued by a bank or thrift that
indicates a specified sum of money has been deposited. A CD bears a maturity date and a specified interest
rate, and can be issued in any denomination. The duration can be up to five years.


Certificate of Deposit (CD)

A bank deposit that cannot be withdrawn for a specified period of time. See also term deposit.


Clearing House Automated Payments System (CHAPS)

A computerized clearing system for sterling funds
that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the
clearing companies within the structure of the Association for Payment clearing Services (APACS).


Clearing house / Clearinghouse

An adjunct to a futures exchange through which transactions executed its floor are settled by a
process of matching purchases and sales. A clearing organization is also charged with the proper conduct of
delivery procedures and the adequate financing of the entire operation.


British Clearers Image 3

Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)

An international wire transfer system for high-value
payments operated by a group of major banks.



Clearing member

A member firm of a clearing house. Each clearing member must also be a member of the
exchange. Not all members of the exchange, however, are members of the clearing organization. All trades of
a non-clearing member must be registered with, and eventually settled through, a clearing member.


Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an
asset explained by the market portfolio return.


coefficient of determination

a measure of dispersion that
indicates the “goodness of fit” of the actual observations
to the least squares regression line; indicates what proportion
of the total variation in y is explained by the regression model


Common market

An agreement between two or more countries that permits the free movement of capital
and labor as well as goods and services.


Common stock market

The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.


Complete capital market

A market in which there is a distinct marketable security for each and every
possible outcome.


Completion undertaking

An undertaking either (1) to complete a project such that it meets certain specified
performance criteria on or before a certain specified date or (2) to repay project debt if the completion test
cannot be met.


Consortium banks

A merchant banking subsidiary set up by several banks that may or may not be of the
same nationality. Consortium banks are common in the Euromarket and are active in loan syndication.


Corner A Market

To purchase enough of the available supply of a commodity or stock in order to
manipulate its price.


Credit Terms

Conditions under which credit is extended by a lender to a borrower.


Dealer market

A market where traders specializing in particular commodities buy and sell assets for their
own accounts.


Debt market

The market for trading debt instruments.


Demand Deposit

A bank deposit that can be withdrawn on demand, such as a deposit in a checking account.


Demand deposits

Checking accounts that pay no interest and can be withdrawn upon demand.


Deposit Creation

The process whereby the banking system transforms a dollar of reserves into several dollars of money supply.


Deposit Switching

Central bank switching of government deposits between the central bank and commercial banks.


Depository transfer check (DTC)

Check made out directly by a local bank to a particular firm or person.


Depository Trust Company (DTC)

DTC is a user-owned securities depository which accepts deposits of
eligible securities for custody, executes book-entry deliveries and records book-entry pledges of securities in
its custody, and provides for withdrawals of securities from its custody.


Derivative markets

markets for derivative instruments.


Deterministic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash
flows are known with certainty. Related: Compare stochastic models


Direct Deposit

The direct transfer of payroll funds from the company bank account
directly into that of the employee, avoiding the use of a paycheck.


direct deposit

A system where funds are electronically credited to your account by a financial institution or a payroll service. For example, you can arrange with your employer to have your pay cheques automatically deposited into your no fee bank account.


Direct search market

Buyers and sellers seek each other directly and transact directly.


Disintermediation

Withdrawal of funds from a financial institution in order to invest them directly.


DLOM (discount for lack of marketability)

an amount or percentage deducted from an equity interest to reflect lack of marketability.


Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
export activities.


Domestic market

Part of a nation's internal market representing the mechanisms for issuing and trading
securities of entities domiciled within that nation. Compare external market and foreign market.


Efficient capital market

A market in which new information is very quickly reflected accurately in share
prices.


efficient capital markets

Financial markets in which security prices rapidly reflect all relevant information about asset values.


Efficient Market Hypothesis

In general the hypothesis states that all relevant information is fully and
immediately reflected in a security's market price thereby assuming that an investor will obtain an equilibrium
rate of return. In other words, an investor should not expect to earn an abnormal return (above the market
return) through either technical analysis or fundamental analysis. Three forms of efficient market hypothesis
exist: weak form (stock prices reflect all information of past prices), semi-strong form (stock prices reflect all
publicly available information) and strong form (stock prices reflect all relevant information including insider
information).


Efficient Markets Hypothesis

The hypothesis that securities are typically in equilibrium--that they are fairly priced in the sense that the price reflects all publicly available information on the security.


Either-way market

In the interbank Eurodollar deposit market, an either-way market is one in which the bid
and offered rates are identical.


Electronic depository transfers

The transfer of funds between bank accounts through the Automated
clearing House (ACH) system.


Emerging markets

The financial markets of developing economies.


Equilibrium market price of risk

The slope of the capital market line (CML). Since the CML represents the
return offered to compensate for a perceived level of risk, each point on the line is a balanced market
condition, or equilibrium. The slope of the line determines the additional return needed to compensate for a
unit change in risk.


Equity market

Related:Stock market


Euro-medium term note (Euro-MTN)

A non-underwritten Euronote issued directly to the market. Euro-
MTNs are offered continuously rather than all at once as a bond issue is. Most Euro-MTN maturities are
under five years.


Eurocurrency deposit

A short-term fixed rate time deposit denominated in a currency other than the local
currency (i.e. US$ deposited in a London bank).


Eurocurrency market

The money market for borrowing and lending currencies that are held in the form of
deposits in banks located outside the countries of the currencies issued as legal tender.


Excess return on the market portfolio

The difference between the return on the market portfolio and the
riskless rate.


External market

Also referred to as the international market, the offshore market, or, more popularly, the
Euromarket, the mechanism for trading securities that (1) at issuance are offered simultaneously to investors
in a number of countries and (2) are issued outside the jurisdiction of any single country. Related: internal
market


Fair market price

Amount at which an asset would change hands between two parties, both having
knowledge of the relevant facts. Also referred to as market price.


Fair market value

The price that an asset or service will fetch on the open market.


Fair Market Value

The highest price available, expressed in terms of cash, in an open and unrestricted market between informed, prudent parties acting at arm's length and under no compulsion to transact.


Farm Improvement and Marketing Cooperatives Loans Act

See here


Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

A federal institution that insures bank deposits.


Federal funds market

The market where banks can borrow or lend reserves, allowing banks temporarily
short of their required reserves to borrow reserves from banks that have excess reserves.


Federal Home Loan Banks

The institutions that regulate and lend to savings and loan associations. The
Federal Home Loan banks play a role analogous to that played by the Federal Reserve banks vis-à-vis
member commercial banks.


Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)

Fed committee that makes decisions about open-market operations.


Federal Reserve Banks

The twelve district banks in the Federal Reserve System.


Financial intermediaries

Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
traders.


financial intermediary

Firm that raises money from many small investors and provides financing to businesses or other
organizations by investing in their securities.


Financial Intermediary

Any institution, such as a bank, that takes deposits from savers and loans them to borrowers.


Financial Intermediation

The process whereby financial intermediaries channel funds from lender/savers to borrower/spenders.


Financial market

An organized institutional structure or mechanism for creating and exchanging financial assets.


financial markets

markets in which financial assets are traded.


Fixed-income market

The market for trading bonds and preferred stock.


Flexible Term

Optional periods of time which the conditions of a contract will be carried out.


Foreign banking market

That portion of domestic bank loans supplied to foreigners for use abroad.


Foreign bond market

That portion of the domestic bond market that represents issues floated by foreign
companies to governments.


Foreign equity market

That portion of the domestic equity market that represents issues floated by foreign companies.


Foreign Exchange Market

A worldwide market in which one country's currency is bought or sold in exchange for another country's currency.


Foreign market

Part of a nation's internal market, representing the mechanisms for issuing and trading
securities of entities domiciled outside that nation. Compare external market and domestic market.


Foreign market beta

A measure of foreign market risk that is derived from the capital asset pricing model.


Forward Exchange Market

A market in which foreign exchange can be bought or sold for delivery (and payment) at some specified future date but at a price agreed upon now.


Forward market

A market in which participants agree to trade some commodity, security, or foreign
exchange at a fixed price for future delivery.


Fourth market

Direct trading in exchange-listed securities between investors without the use of a broker.


Futures market

A market in which contracts for future delivery of a commodity or a security are bought or sold.


Gray market

Purchases and sales of eurobonds that occur before the issue price is finally set.


Gross Domestic Product

Total output of final goods and services produced within a country during a year.


Gross domestic product (GDP)

The market value of goods and services produced over time including the
income of foreign corporations and foreign residents working in the U.S., but excluding the income of U.S.
residents and corporations overseas.


Index and Option Market (IOM)

A division of the CME established in 1982 for trading stock index
products and options. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).



 

 

 

 

 

 

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