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Definition of Bourse

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Bourse

A term of French origin used to refer to stock markets.



Related Terms:

Acquisition of stock

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the acquiree's stock.


Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.


American Stock Exchange (AMEX)

The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.


Auction markets

markets in which the prevailing price is determined through the free interaction of
prospective buyers and sellers, as on the floor of the stock exchange.


Auction rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Floating rate preferred stock, the dividend on which is adjusted every
seven weeks through a Dutch auction.



Beta equation (Stocks)

The beta of a stock is determined as follows:
[(n) (sum of (xy)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of y)]
[(n) (sum of (xx)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of x)]
where: n = # of observations (24-60 months)
x = rate of return for the S&P 500 Index
y = rate of return for the stock


Cash markets

Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security
or instrument.
Related: derivative markets.


Bourse Image 1

Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an
asset explained by the market portfolio return.


Common stock

These are securities that represent equity ownership in a company. Common shares let an
investor vote on such matters as the election of directors. They also give the holder a share in a company's
profits via dividend payments or the capital appreciation of the security.


Common stock/other equity

Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.


Common stock equivalent

A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned
common stock is trading high.


Common stock market

The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.


Common stock ratios

Ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
(cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.


Conflict between bondholders and stockholders

These two groups may have interests in a corporation that
conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective
covenants work to resolve these conflicts.


Convertible exchangeable preferred stock

Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred
stock.


Convertible preferred stock

Preferred stock that can be converted into common stock at the option of the holder.


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Cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose dividends accrue, should the issuer not make timely
dividend payments. Related: non-cumulative preferred stock.


Derivative markets

markets for derivative instruments.



Deterministic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash
flows are known with certainty. Related: Compare stochastic models


Direct stock-purchase programs

The purchase by investors of securities directly from the issuer.


Disintermediation

Withdrawal of funds from a financial institution in order to invest them directly.


Dividend yield (Stocks)

Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.


Emerging markets

The financial markets of developing economies.


Employee stock fund

A firm-sponsored program that enables employees to purchase shares of the firm's
common stock on a preferential basis.


Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)

A company contributes to a trust fund that buys stock on behalf of
employees.


Euro-medium term note (Euro-MTN)

A non-underwritten Euronote issued directly to the market. Euro-
MTNs are offered continuously rather than all at once as a bond issue is. Most Euro-MTN maturities are
under five years.


Exchange of stock

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its stock in exchange for cash or shares.


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Financial intermediaries

Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
traders.



Floating-rate preferred

Preferred stock paying dividends that vary with short-term interest rates.


Growth stock

Common stock of a company that has an opportunity to invest money and earn more than the
opportunity cost of capital.


Income stock

Common stock with a high dividend yield and few profitable investment opportunities.


Intermarket sector

spread The spread between the interest rate offered in two sectors of the bond market for
issues of the same maturity.


Intermarket spread swaps

An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a
realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.


Intermediate-term

Typically 1-10 years.


Intermediation

Investment through a financial institution. Related: disintermediation.


Involuntary liquidation preference

A premium that must be paid to preferred or preference stockholders if
the issuer of the stock is forced into involuntary liquidation.


Letter stock

Privately placed common stock, so-called because the SEC requires a letter from the purchaser
stating that the stock is not intended for resale.


Liquidity preference hypothesis

The argument that greater liquidity is valuable, all else equal. Also, the
theory that the forward rate exceeds expected future interest rates.


Liquidity theory of the term structure

A biased expectations theory that asserts that the implied forward
rates will not be a pure estimate of the market's expectations of future interest rates because they embody a
liquidity premium.


Listed stocks

stocks that are traded on an exchange.


Long-term

In accounting information, one year or greater.


Long-term assets

Value of property, equipment and other capital assets minus the depreciation. This is an
entry in the bookkeeping records of a company, usually on a "cost" basis and thus does not necessarily reflect
the market value of the assets.


Long-term debt

An obligation having a maturity of more than one year from the date it was issued. Also
called funded debt.


Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.


Long-term debt ratio

The ratio of long-term debt to total capitalization.


Long-term financial plan

Financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.


Long-term liabilities

Amount owed for leases, bond repayment and other items due after 1 year.


Long-term debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.


Listed stocks

stocks that are traded on an exchange.


Margin account (Stocks)

A leverageable account in which stocks can be purchased for a combination of
cash and a loan. The loan in the margin account is collateralized by the stock and, if the value of the stock
drops sufficiently, the owner will be asked to either put in more cash, or sell a portion of the stock. Margin
rules are federally regulated, but margin requirements and interest may vary among broker/dealers.


Market segmentation theory or preferred habitat theory

A biased expectations theory that asserts that the
shape of the yield curve is determined by the supply of and demand for securities within each maturity sector.


Medium-term note

A corporate debt instrument that is continuously offered to investors over a period of
time by an agent of the issuer. Investors can select from the following maturity bands: 9 months to 1 year,
more than 1 year to 18 months, more than 18 months to 2 years, etc., up to 30 years.


Monthly income preferred security (MIP)

Preferred stock issued by a subsidiary located in a tax haven.
The subsidiary relends the money to the parent.


Negotiated markets

markets in which each transaction is separately negotiated between buyer and seller (i.e.
an investor and a dealer).


New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

Also known as the Big Board or The Exhange. More than 2,00 common
and preferred stocks are traded. The exchange is the older in the United States, founded in 1792, and the
largest. It is lcoated on Wall Street in New York City


Non-cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose holders must forgo dividend payments when the
company misses a dividend payment.
Related: Cumulative preferred stock


Original face value

The principal amount of the mortgage as of its issue date.


Original issue discount debt (OID debt)

Debt that is initially offered at a price below par.


Original margin

The margin needed to cover a specific new position. Related: Margin, security deposit (initial)


Original maturity

Maturity at issue. For example, a five year note has an original maturity of 5 years; one
year later it has a maturity of 4 years.


Origination

The making of mortgage loans.


Other long term liabilities

Value of leases, future employee benefits, deferred taxes and other obligations
not requiring interest payments that must be paid over a period of more than 1 year.


Perfectly competitive financial markets

markets in which no trader has the power to change the price of
goods or services. Perfect capital markets are characterized by the following conditions: 1) trading is costless,
and access to the financial markets is free, 2) information about borrowing and lending opportunities is freely
available, 3) there are many traders, and no single trader can have a significant impact on market prices.


Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX)

A securities exchange where American and European foreign
currency options on spot exchange rates are traded.


Preferred equity redemption stock (PERC)

Preferred stock that converts automatically into equity at a
stated date. A limit is placed on the value of the shares the investor receives.


Preference stock

A security that ranks junior to preferred stock but senior to common stock in the right to
receive payments from the firm; essentially junior preferred stock.


Preferred habitat theory

A biased expectations theory that believes the term structure reflects the
expectation of the future path of interest rates as well as risk premium. However, the theory rejects the
assertion that the risk premium must rise uniformly with maturity. Instead, to the extent that the demand for
and supply of funds does not match for a given maturity range, some participants will shift to maturities
showing the opposite imbalances. As long as such investors are compensated by an appropriate risk premium
whose magnitude will reflect the extent of aversion to either price or reinvestment risk.


Preferred shares

Preferred shares give investors a fixed dividend from the company's earnings. And more
importantly: preferred shareholders get paid before common shareholders. See: preferred stock.


Preferred stock

A security that shows ownership in a corporation and gives the holder a claim, prior to the
claim of common stockholders, on earnings and also generally on assets in the event of liquidation. Most
preferred stock pays a fixed dividend that is paid prior to the common stock dividend, stated in a dollar
amount or as a percentage of par value. This stock does not usually carry voting rights. The stock shares
characteristics of both common stock and debt.


Preferred stock agreement

A contract for preferred stock.


Reference rate

A benchmark 'interest rate (such as LIBOR), used to specify conditions of an interest rate
swap or an interest rate agreement.


Repurchase of stock

Device to pay cash to firm's shareholders that provides more preferable tax treatment
for shareholders than dividends. Treasury stock is the name given to previously issued stock that has been
repurchased by the firm. A repurchase is achieved through either a dutch auction, open market, or tender offer.


Reverse stock split

A proportionate decrease in the number of shares, but not the value of shares of stock
held by shareholders. Shareholders maintain the same percentage of equity as before the split. For example, a
1-for-3 split would result in stockholders owning 1 share for every 3 shares owned before the split. After the
reverse split, the firm's stock price is, in this example, worth three times the pre-reverse split price. A firm
generally institutes a reverse split to boost its stock's market price and attract investors.


Short-term financial plan

A financial plan that covers the coming fiscal year.


Short-term investment services

Services that assist firms in making short-term investments.


Short-term solvency ratios

Ratios used to judge the adequacy of liquid assets for meeting short-term
obligations as they come due, including
1) the current ratio,
2) the acid-test ratio,
3) the inventory turnover ratio, and
4) the accounts receivable turnover ratio.


Short-term tax exempts

Short-term securities issued by states, municipalities, local housing agencies, and
urban renewal agencies.


Spot markets

Related: cash markets


Stock

Ownership of a corporation which is represented by shares which represent a piece of the corporation's
assets and earnings.


Stock dividend

Payment of a corporate dividend in the form of stock rather than cash. The stock dividend
may be additional shares in the company, or it may be shares in a subsidiary being spun off to shareholders.
stock dividends are often used to conserve cash needed to operate the business. Unlike a cash dividend, stock
dividends are not taxed until sold.


Stock exchanges

Formal organizations, approved and regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC), that are made up of members that use the facilities to exchange certain common stocks. The two major
national stock exchanges are the New York stock Exchange (NYSE) and the American stock Exchange (ASE
or AMEX). Five regional stock exchanges include the Midwest, Pacific, Philadelphia, Boston, and Cincinnati.
The Arizona stock exchange is an after hours electronic marketplace where anonymous participants trade
stocks via personal computers.


Stock repurchase

A firm's repurchase of outstanding shares of its common stock.


Stock selection

An active portfolio management technique that focuses on advantageous selection of
particular stocks rather than on broad asset allocation choices.


Stockholder equity

Balance sheet item that includes the book value of ownership in the corporation. It
includes capital stock, paid in surplus, and retained earnings.


Stock index option

An option in which the underlying is a common stock index.


Stock market

Also called the equity market, the market for trading equities.


Stock option

An option in which the underlying is the common stock of a corporation.


Stock replacement strategy

A strategy for enhancing a portfolio's return, employed when the futures
contract is expensive based on its theoretical price, involving a swap between the futures, treasury bills
portfolio and a stock portfolio.


Stock split

Occurs when a firm issues new shares of stock but in turn lowers the current market price of its
stock to a level that is proportionate to pre-split prices. For example, if IBM trades at $100 before a 2-for-1
split, after the split it will trade at $50 and holders of the stock will have twice as many shares than they had
before the split. See: split.


Stock ticker

This is a lettered symbol assigned to securities and mutual funds that trade on U.S.financial exchanges.


Stockholder

Holder of equity shares in a firm.


Stockholder's books

Set of books kept by firm management for its annual report that follows Financial
Accounting Standards Board rules. The tax books follow IRS tax rules.


Stockholder's equity

The residual claims that stockholders have against a firm's assets, calculated by
subtracting total liabilities from total assets.


Stockout

Running out of inventory.


Term bonds

Often referred to as bullet-maturity bonds or simply bullet bonds, bonds whose principal is
payable at maturity. Related: serial bonds


Term Fed Funds

Fed Funds sold for a period of time longer than overnight.


Term life insurance

A contract that provides a death benefit but no cash build-up or investment component.
The premium remains constant only for a specified term of years, and the policy is usually renewable at the
end of each term.


Term loan

A bank loan, typically with a floating interest rate, for a specified amount that matures in between
one and ten years and requires a specified repayment schedule.


Term insurance

Provides a death benefit only, no build-up of cash value.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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