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Definition of Bidder

Bidder Image 1

Bidder

A firm or person that wants to buy a firm or security.



Related Terms:

poison pill

Measure taken by a target firm to avoid acquisition;
for example, the right for existing shareholders to buy additional
shares at an attractive price if a bidder acquires a large holding.


runup

the period before a formal announcement of a takeover bid in which one or more bidders are either preparing to make an announcement or speculating that someone else will.


Targeted repurchase

The firm buys back its own stock from a potential bidder, usually at a substantial
premium, to forestall a takeover attempt.


Wanted for cash

A statement displayed on market tickers indicating that a bidder will pay cash for same day
settlement of a block of a specified security.


Winners's

curse Problem faced by uninformed bidders. For example, in an initial public offering uninformed
participants are likely to receive larger allotments of issues that informed participants know are overpriced.



Poison put

A covenant allowing the bondholder to demand repayment in the event of a hostile merger.


Absolute Right of Return

Goods may be returned to the seller by the purchaser without restrictions.


Bidder Image 1

Accounting period

The period of time for which financial statements are produced – see also financial year.


acquisition

takeover of a firm by purchase of that firm’s common
stock or assets.


Acquisition of assets

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the selling firm's assets.


Acquisition of stock

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the acquiree's stock.


Additional hedge

A protection against borrower fallout risk in the mortgage pipeline.


Additional paid-in capital

Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with capital in excess of par.


Additional paid-in capital

Any payment received from investors for stock that exceeds
the par value of the stock.


additional paid-in capital

Difference between issue price and par value of stock. Also called capital surplus.


Affirmative covenant

A bond covenant that specifies certain actions the firm must take.


Bidder Image 2

All or none

Requirement that none of an order be executed unless all of it can be executed at the specified price.


All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.



Allocation base A measure of activity or volume such as labour

hours, machine hours or volume of production
used to apportion overheads to products and
services.


American shares

Securities certificates issued in the U.S. by a transfer agent acting on behalf of the foreign
issuer. The certificates represent claims to foreign equities.


Announcement date

Date on which particular news concerning a given company is announced to the public.
Used in event studies, which researchers use to evaluate the economic impact of events of interest.


Annualized holding period return

The annual rate of return that when compounded t times, would have
given the same t-period holding return as actually occurred from period 1 to period t.


Annuity Period

The time between each payment under an annuity.


Appraisal rights

A right of shareholders in a merger to demand the payment of a fair price for their shares, as
determined independently.


Arm's length price

The price at which a willing buyer and a willing unrelated seller would freely agree to
transact.


Ask price

A dealer's price to sell a security; also called the offer price.


Asset-backed security

A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
on personal property, not real estate.


At-the-money

An option is at-the-money if the strike price of the option is equal to the market price of the
underlying security. For example, if xyz stock is trading at 54, then the xyz 54 option is at-the-money.



Authorized shares

Number of shares authorized for issuance by a firm's corporate charter.


Authorized shares

The number of shares of stock that the company is legally authorized to sell.


Available-for-Sale Security

A debt or equity security not classified as a held-to-maturity security or a trading security. Can be classified as a current or noncurrent investment depending on the intended holding period.


Average (across-day) measures

An estimation of price that uses the average or representative price of a
large number of trades.


Average Amortization Period

The average useful life of a company's collective amortizable asset base.


Average Collection Period

Average number of days necessary to receive cash for the sale of
a company's products. It is calculated by dividing the value of the
accounts receivable by the average daily sales for the period.


Average collection period, or days' receivables

The ratio of accounts receivables to sales, or the total
amount of credit extended per dollar of daily sales (average AR/sales * 365).


Avoidable costs

Costs that are identifiable with and able to be influenced by decisions made at the business
unit (e.g. division) level.


Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.


Basis price

price expressed in terms of yield to maturity or annual rate of return.


Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.


Bid-asked

spread The difference between the bid and asked prices.


Bid price

This is the quoted bid, or the highest price an investor is willing to pay to buy a security. Practically
speaking, this is the available price at which an investor can sell shares of stock. Related: Ask , offer.


Builder buydown loan

A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the
early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buy down the mortgage rate to a lower level than the
prevailing market loan rate for some period of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the interest-rate amount
for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown).


Buy

To purchase an asset; taking a long position.


Buy-and-hold strategy

A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the
time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.


Buy-back

Another term for a repo.


Buy in

To cover, offset or close out a short position. Related: evening up, liquidation.


Buy limit order

A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
price or lower.
Related: Sell limit order.


Buy on close

To buy at the end of the trading session at a price within the closing range.


Buy on margin

A transaction in which an investor borrows to buy additional shares, using the shares
themselves as collateral.


Buy on opening

To buy at the beginning of a trading session at a price within the opening range.


Buy/Sell Agreement

This is an agreement entered into by the owners of a business to define the conditions under which the interests of each shareholder will be bought and sold. The agreement sets the value of each shareholders interest and stipulates what happens when one of the owners wishes to dispose of his/her interest during his/her lifetime as well as disposal of interest upon death or disability. Life insurance, critical illness coverage and disability insurance are major considerations to help fund this type of agreement.


Buy-side analyst

A financial analyst employed by a non-brokerage firm, typically one of the larger money
management firms that purchase securities on their own accounts.


Buydowns

Mortgages in which monthly payments consist of principal and interest, with portions of these
payments during the early period of the loan being provided by a third party to reduce the borrower's monthly
payments.


Buying the index

Purchasing the stocks in the S&P 500 in the same proportion as the index to achieve the
same return.


Buyout

Purchase of a controlling interest (or percent of shares) of a company's stock. A leveraged buy-out is
done with borrowed money.


Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.


Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.


Call price

The price for which a bond can be repaid before maturity under a call provision.


Clean price

Bond price excluding accrued interest.


Common Shares

Are equity instruments that take no security against assets, have no fixed terms of repayment and pay no fixed dividends.


Company Acquisitions

Assets acquired to create money. May include plant, machinery and equipment, shares of another company etc.


Competitive bidding

A securities offering process in which securities firms submit competing bids to the
issuer for the securities the issuer wishes to sell.


Component

Raw materials or subassemblies used to make either finished goods
or higher levels of subassembly.


Compounding period

The length of the time period (for example, a quarter in the case of quarterly
compounding) that elapses before interest compounds.


compounding period

the time between each interest computation


Conditional Buyer

one of two parties to a conditional sale agreement, the other being the conditional seller.


Confirmation

he written statement that follows any "trade" in the securities markets. Confirmation is issued
immediately after a trade is executed. It spells out settlement date, terms, commission, etc.


Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The CPI, as it is called, Measures the prices of consumer goods and services and is a
Measure of the pace of U.S. inflation. The U.S.Department of Labor publishes the CPI very month.


Consumer Price Index (CPI)

An index calculated by tracking the cost of a typical bundle of consumer goods and services over time. It is commonly used to Measure inflation.


Conversion parity price

Related:Market conversion price


Conversion Right

Term life insurance products are offered as non-convertible or convertible to a certain time in the future. The coversion right has a time limit, usually to the policy holder's age 60 or possibly even age 70. This right means that the policy holder has the right to convert their existing policy to another specific different plan of permanent insurance within the specified time period, without providing evidence of insurability. There is a slightly higher cost for a term policy with the conversion priviledge but it is a valuable feature should a policy holder's health change for the worst and continued insurance coverage becomes a necessity.
Most often this right is also granted to individuals covered under employee group benefit policies where individuals leaving the employee group have a limited amount of time, usually anywhere from 30 to 90 days, to convert to a specific permanent individual policy without evidence of insurability.


Convertible price

The contractually specified price per share at which a convertible security can be
converted into shares of common stock.


Convertible security

A security that can be converted into common stock at the option of the security holder,
including convertible bonds and convertible preferred stock.


Corporate acquisition

The acquisition of one firm by anther firm.


cost avoidance

the practice of finding acceptable alternatives
to high-cost items and/or not spending money for
unnecessary goods or services


Creative Acquisition Accounting

The allocation to expense of a greater portion of the price
paid for another company in an acquisition in an effort to reduce acquisition-year earnings and
boost future-year earnings. acquisition-year expense charges include purchased in-process research
and development and an overly aggressive accrual of costs required to effect the acquisition.


Credit period

The length of time for which the customer is granted credit.


Critical Growth Periods

Times in a company's history when growth is essential and without which survival of the business might be in jeopardy.


Cross holdings

one corporation holds shares in another firm.


Cum rights

With rights.


Debt Security

A security representing a debt relationship with an enterprise, including a government
security, municipal security, corporate bond, convertible debt issue, and commercial
paper.


Delivery price

The price fixed by the Clearing house at which deliveries on futures are in invoiced; also the
price at which the futures contract is settled when deliveries are made.


Derivative security

A financial security, such as an option, or future, whose value is derived in part from the
value and characteristics of another security, the underlying security.


Devaluation A decrease in the spot price of the currency



Dirty price

Bond price including accrued interest, i.e., the price paid by the bond buyer.


Discount period

The period during which a customer can deduct the discount from the net amount of the bill
when making payment.


Discounted payback period rule

An investment decision rule in which the cash flows are discounted at an
interest rate and the payback rule is applied on these discounted cash flows.


Dividend rights

A shareholders' rights to receive per-share dividends identical to those other shareholders receive.


Dollar price of a bond

Percentage of face value at which a bond is quoted.


Dow Jones industrial average

This is the best known U.S.index of stocks. It contains 30 stocks that trade on
the New York Stock Exchange. The Dow, as it is called, is a barometer of how shares of the largest
U.S.companies are performing. There are thousands of investment indexes around the world for stocks,
bonds, currencies and commodities.


Dow Jones Industrial Average

Index of the investment performance of a portfolio of 30 “blue-chip” stocks.


earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT)

A Measure of profit that
equals sales revenue for the period minus cost-of-goods-sold expense
and all operating expenses—but before deducting interest and income
tax expenses. It is a Measure of the operating profit of a business before
considering the cost of its debt capital and income tax.


Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial Measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.


Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

The operating profit before deducting interest and tax.


Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

The operating profit before deducting interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.


Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

An earningsbased Measure that, for many, serves as a surrogate for cash flow. Actually consists of working
capital provided by operations before interest and taxes.


EBBS - Earnings before the bad stuff

An acronym attributed to a member of the Securities and
Exchange Commission staff. The reference is to earnings that have been heavily adjusted to
remove a wide range of nonrecurring, nonoperating, and noncash items.


EBDDT - Earnings before depreciation and deferred taxes

This Measure is used principally by
firms in the real estate industry, with the exception of real estate investment trusts, which typically
do not pay taxes.


economic components model

Abrams’ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
This model consists of four components: the Measure of the economic impact of the delay-to-sale, monopsony power to buyers, and incremental transactions costs to both buyers and sellers.


Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.


Either/or facility

An agreement permitting a bank customer to borrow either domestic dollars from the
bank's head office or Eurodollars from one of its foreign branches.


Either-way market

In the interbank Eurodollar deposit market, an either-way market is one in which the bid
and offered rates are identical.


Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA)

A federal Act that sets minimum operational and funding standards for employee benefit
plans.


Equilibrium market price of risk

The slope of the capital market line (CML). Since the CML represents the
return offered to compensate for a perceived level of risk, each point on the line is a balanced market
condition, or equilibrium. The slope of the line determines the additional return needed to compensate for a
unit change in risk.


Equity Buy-Back

Refers to the investors percentage ownership of a company that can be re-acquired by the company, usually at a pre-determined amount.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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