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Definition of Z score
Statistical measure that quantifies the distance (measured in standard deviations) a data point is from
A test used to determine the status of an employee under a state unemployment
Provides additional financial security should an insured person be dismembered or lose the use of a limb as the result of an accident.
Also called the quick ratio, the ratio of current assets minus inventories, accruals, and prepaid
A ratio that shows how well a company could pay its current debts using only its most liquid or “quick” assets. It’s a more pessimistic—but also realistic—measure of safety than the current ratio, because it ignores sluggish, hard-toliquidate current assets like inventory and notes receivable. Here’s the formula:
See quick ratio
The sum of cash, accounts receivable, and short-term marketable
A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the selling firm's assets.
hours, machine hours or volume of production
Refers to the reduction of debt by regular payments of interest and principal in order to pay off a loan by maturity.
Arithmetic mean return.
An average of the subperiod returns, calculated by summing the subperiod returns
Any possession that has value in an exchange.
A resource, recorded through a transaction, that is expected to yield a benefit to a
Something that is owned; a financial claim or a piece of property that is a store of value.
Probable future economic benefit that is obtained or controlled by an entity as a result of
Anything owned by, or owed to, an individual or business which has commercial or exchange value (e.g., cash, property, etc.).
All things of value owned by an individual or organization.
Asset activity ratios
Ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.
Asset allocation decision
The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
Bond or note secured by assets of company.
A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
Methods of financing in which lenders and equity investors look principally to the
Loans granted usually by a financial institution where the asset being financed constitutes the sole security given to the lender.
Categories of assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate and foreign securities.
Extent to which a company's net assets cover a particular debt obligation, class of preferred stock, or equity position.
A bond indenture restriction that permits additional borrowing on if the ratio of assets to
The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity.
Asset for asset swap
creditors exchange the debt of one defaulting borrower for the debt of another
Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
The weighting of assets in an investment portfolio among different asset classes (e.g. shares, bonds, property, cash, overseas investments.
Asset pricing model
A model for determining the required rate of return on an asset.
Asset pricing model
A model, such as the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), that determines the required
The amount of total risk that can be eliminated by diversification by
A firm's investing in assets that are riskier than those that the debtholders expected.
Asset substitution problem
Arises when the stockholders substitute riskier assets for the firm's existing
An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's assets so as to
The ratio of net sales to total assets.
a ratio measuring asset productivity and showing the number of sales dollars generated by each dollar of assets
asset turnover ratio
A broad-gauge ratio computed by dividing annual
A firm's productive resources.
Anything of value that a company owns.
Things that the business owns.
Items owned by the company or expenses that have been paid for but have not been used up.
A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
Average (across-day) measures
An estimation of price that uses the average or representative price of a
A system of non-financial performance measurement that links innovation, customer and process measures to financial performance.
balanced scorecard (BSC)
an approach to performance
Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
An international bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which
State of being unable to pay debts. Thus, the ownership of the firm's assets is transferred from
The reorganization or liquidation of a firm that cannot pay its debts.
Bankruptcy cost view
The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other
The risk that a firm will be unable to meet its debt obligations. Also referred to as default or insolvency risk.
The argument that expected bankruptcy costs preclude firms from being financed entirely
In the bond market, the smallest measure used for quoting yields is a basis point. Each percentage
One one-hundredth of one percent
One hundredth of one percentage point, or 0.0001.
One one-hundredth of a percentage point, used to express variations in yields. For example, the difference between 5.36 percent and 5.38 percent is 2 basis points.
Beneficiary (Credit Insurance)
The person or party designated to receive proceeds entitled by a benefit. Payment of a benefit is triggered by an event. In the case of credit insurance, the beneficiary will always be the creditor.
The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization
A conventional unit of measure for bond prices set at $10 and equivalent to 1% of the $100 face
Borrower (Credit Insurance)
A consumer who borrows money from a lender.
break-even point (BEP)
the level of activity, in units or dollars, at which total revenues equal total costs
The point at which total costs equal total revenue, i.e. where there is neither a profit nor a loss.
The annual sales volume level at which total contribution
The sales level at which a company, division, or product line makes a
an asset used to generate revenues or cost savings
A fixed asset, something that is expected to have long-term usage within
Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
A model for estimating equilibrium rates of return and values of
capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
Theory of the relationship between risk and return which states that the expected risk
Capitalized Cost An expenditure or accrual that is reported as an asset to be amortized against
Cash-flow break-even point
The point below which the firm will need either to obtain additional financing
Cash settlement contracts
Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving
Commercial Business Loan (Credit Insurance)
An agreement between a creditor and a borrower, where the creditor has loaned an amount to the borrower for business purposes.
Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee
The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s Performance Presentation standards Implementation
Comparative credit analysis
A method of analysis in which a firm is compared to others that have a desired
credit granted by a firm to consumers for the purchase of goods or services. Also called
Consumer Credit Protection Act
A federal Act specifying the proportion of
An offset to an asset account that reduces the balance of the asset account.
Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act
A federal Act requiring federal contractors to pay overtime for hours worked exceeding 40 per week.
Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB)
a body established by Congress in 1970 to promulgate cost accounting
Buying or selling goods or services now with the intention of payment following at some time in
One side of a journal entry, usually depicted as the right side.
A rating of a company's credit (ability to payback debt), usually by a third party credit agency.
On your bank statement, 'credit' represents funds that you have deposited into your account. The opposite of a credit is a debit.
The process of analyzing information on companies and bond issues in order to estimate the
Procedure to determine the likelihood a customer will pay its bills.
An organization that provides financial institutions with credit information concerning existing or potential customers who are looking to obtain credit services.
A revolving source of credit with a pre-established limit. You have to pay interest on a credit card if you have an outstanding balance.
A decline in the ability or willingness of banks to lend.
Purchase of the financial guarantee of a large insurance company to raise funds.
A loan receivable that has proven uncollectible and is written off.
A record of the funds which have been credited to your account.
The length of time for which the customer is granted credit.
standards set to determine the amount and nature of credit to extend to customers.
Restriction of loans by lenders so that not all borrowers willing to pay the current interest rate are able to obtain loans.
The risk that an issuer of debt securities or a borrower may default on his obligations, or that the
Financial and moral risk that an obligation will not be paid and a loss will result.
A Statistical technique wherein several financial characteristics are combined to form a single
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