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Definition of Without recourse

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Without recourse

without the lender having any right to seek payment or seize assets in the event of
nonpayment from anyone other than the party (such as a special-purpose entity) specified in the debt contract.



Related Terms:

Nonrecourse

without recourse, as in a non-recourse lease.


Factoring

The discounting, or sale at a discount, of receivables on a nonrecourse, notification
basis. The purchaser of the accounts receivable, the factor, assumes full risk of collection and
credit losses, without recourse to the firms discounting the receivables. Customers are notified to
remit directly to the factor.


Recourse

Term describing a type of loan. If a loan is with recourse, the lender has a general claim against the
parent company if the collateral is insufficient to repay the debt.


Without

If 70 were bid in the market and there was no offer, the quote would be "70 bid without." The
expression "without" indicates a one-way market.


Recourse

In the event a person defaults on a loan, recourse is the right of a person to receive payment. recourse could give the lender the ability to take possession of the borrowers assets.



Maturity factoring

factoring arrangement that provides collection and insurance of accounts receivable.


Old-line factoring

factoring arrangement that provides collection, insurance, and finance for accounts receivable.


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ADF (annuity discount factor)

the present value of a finite stream of cash flows for every beginning $1 of cash flow.


DLOC (discount for lack of control)

an amount or percentage deducted from a pro rata share of the value of 100% of an equity interest in a business, to reflect the absence of some or all of the powers of control.


DLOM (discount for lack of marketability)

an amount or percentage deducted from an equity interest to reflect lack of marketability.


discount rate

the rate of return on investment that would be required by a prudent investor to invest in an asset with a specific level risk. Also, a rate of return used to convert a monetary sum, payable or receivable in the future, into present value.


fractional interest discount

the combined discounts for lack of control and marketability. g the constant growth rate in cash flows or net income used in the ADF, Gordon model, or present value factor.


PPF (periodic perpetuity factor)

a generalization formula invented by Abrams that is the present value of regular but noncontiguous cash flows that have constant growth to perpetuity.


QMDM (quantitative marketability discount model)

model for calculating DLOM for minority interests r the discount rate


Accounts payable

Money owed to suppliers.


Accounts receivable

Money owed by Customers.


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Accounts receivable turnover

The ratio of net credit sales to average accounts receivable, a measure of how
quickly Customers pay their bills.


Accretion (of a discount)

In portfolio accounting, a straight-line accumulation of capital gains on discount
bond in anticipation of receipt of par at maturity.



Acquisition of assets

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the selling firm's assets.


Agency basis

A means of compensating the broker of a program trade solely on the basis of commission
established through bids submitted by various brokerage firms. agency incentive arrangement. A means of
compensating the broker of a program trade using benchmark prices for issues to be traded in determining
commissions or fees.


All or none

Requirement that none of an order be executed unless all of it can be executed at the specified price.


All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.


Amortization factor

The pool factor implied by the scheduled amortization assuming no prepayemts.


Annuity factor

Present value of $1 paid for each of t periods.


Appraisal rights

A right of shareholders in a merger to demand the payment of a fair price for their shares, as
determined independently.


Assets

A firm's productive resources.


Assets requirements

A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
proposed uses of net working capital.


Average age of accounts receivable

The weighted-average age of all of the firm's outstanding invoices.



Average collection period, or days' receivables

The ratio of accounts receivables to sales, or the total
amount of credit extended per dollar of daily sales (average AR/sales * 365).


Balance of payments

A statistical compilation formulated by a sovereign nation of all economic transactions
between residents of that nation and residents of all other nations during a stipulated period of time, usually a
calendar year.


Balance sheet identity

Total assets = Total Liabilities + Total Stockholders' Equity


Bank collection float

The time that elapses between when a check is deposited into a bank account and when the funds are available to the depositor, during which period the bank is collecting payment from the payer's bank.


Bank discount basis

A convention used for quoting bids and offers for treasury bills in terms of annualized
yield , based on a 360-day year.


Bankruptcy risk

The risk that a firm will be unable to meet its debt obligations. Also referred to as default or insolvency risk.


Basis

Regarding a futures contract, the difference between the cash price and the futures price observed in the
market. Also, it is the price an investor pays for a security plus any out-of-pocket expenses. It is used to
determine capital gains or losses for tax purposes when the stock is sold.


Basis point

In the bond market, the smallest measure used for quoting yields is a basis point. Each percentage
point of yield in bonds equals 100 basis points. basis points also are used for interest rates. An interest rate of
5% is 50 basis points greater than an interest rate of 4.5%.


Basis price

Price expressed in terms of yield to maturity or annual rate of return.


Basis risk

The uncertainty about the basis at the time a hedge may be lifted. Hedging substitutes basis risk for
price risk.


Best-efforts sale

A method of securities distribution/ underwriting in which the securities firm agrees to sell
as much of the offering as possible and return any unsold shares to the issuer. As opposed to a guaranteed or
fixed price sale, where the underwriter agrees to sell a specific number of shares (with the securities firm
holding any unsold shares in its own account if necessary).


Best-interests-of-creditors test

The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization
must receive at least as much as he would have if the debtor were liquidated.


Blue-chip company

Large and creditworthy company.


Bond-equivalent basis

The method used for computing the bond-equivalent yield.


Break-even lease payment

The lease payment at which a party to a prospective lease is indifferent between
entering and not entering into the lease arrangement.


Break-even payment rate

The prepayment rate of a MBS coupon that will produce the same CFY as that of
a predetermined benchmark MBS coupon. Used to identify for coupons higher than the benchmark coupon
the prepayment rate that will produce the same CFY as that of the benchmark coupon; and for coupons lower
than the benchmark coupon the lowest prepayment rate that will do so.


Bullet contract

A guaranteed investment contract purchased with a single (one-shot) premium. Related:
Window contract.


Business risk

The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will be impaired because of adverse economic
conditions, making it difficult for the issuer to meet its operating expenses.


Call risk

The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision.


Capital lease

A lease obligation that has to be capitalized on the balance sheet.


Cash discount

An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time
period, such as ten days.


Cash settlement contracts

Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving
the delivery of the underlying.


Clearing House Automated Payments System (CHAPS)

A computerized clearing system for sterling funds
that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the
clearing companies within the structure of the Association for payment Clearing Services (APACS).


Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)

An international wire transfer system for high-value
payments operated by a group of major banks.


Closing sale

A transaction in which the seller's intention is to reduce or eliminate a long position in a stock,
or a given series of options.


Collection float

The negative float that is created between the time when you deposit a check in your account
and the time when funds are made available.


Collection fractions

The percentage of a given month's sales collected during the month of sale and each
month following the month of sale.


Collection policy

Procedures followed by a firm in attempting to collect accounts receivables.


Commercial risk

The risk that a foreign debtor will be unable to pay its debts because of business events,
such as bankruptcy.


Common stock/other equity

Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.


Company-specific risk

Related: Unsystematic risk


Comparative credit analysis

A method of analysis in which a firm is compared to others that have a desired
target debt rating in order to infer an appropriate financial ratio target.


Completion risk

The risk that a project will not be brought into operation successfully.


Conditional sales contracts

Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to whom the manufacturer has sold the conditional
sales contract.


Consumer credit

credit granted by a firm to consumers for the purchase of goods or services. Also called
retail credit.


Contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC)

The formal name for the load of a back-end load fund.


Contract

A term of reference describing a unit of trading for a financial or commodity future. Also, the actual
bilateral agreement between the buyer and seller of a transaction as defined by an exchange.


Contract month

The month in which futures contracts may be satisfied by making or accepting a delivery.
Also called value managers, those who assemble portfolios with relatively lower betas, lower price-book and
P/E ratios and higher dividend yields, seeing value where others do not.


Conversion factors

Rules set by the Chicago Board of Trade for determining the invoice price of each
acceptable deliverable Treasury issue against the Treasury Bond futures contract.


Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.


Cost of lease financing

A lease's internal rate of return.


Counterparty Party

on the other side of a trade or transaction.


Counterparty risk

The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk
to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.
Country economic risk Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international
financial transaction.


Country financial risk

The ability of the national economy to generate enough foreign exchange to meet
payments of interest and principal on its foreign debt.


Country risk General

Level of political and economic uncertainty in a country affecting the value of loans or
investments in that country.


Coupon payments

A bond's interest payments.


Credit

Money loaned.


Credit analysis

The process of analyzing information on companies and bond issues in order to estimate the
ability of the issuer to live up to its future contractual obligations. Related: default risk


Credit enhancement

Purchase of the financial guarantee of a large insurance company to raise funds.


Credit period

The length of time for which the customer is granted credit.


Credit risk

The risk that an issuer of debt securities or a borrower may default on his obligations, or that the
payment may not be made on a negotiable instrument. Related: Default risk


Credit scoring

A statistical technique wherein several financial characteristics are combined to form a single
score to represent a customer's creditworthiness.


Credit spread

Related:Quality spread


Crediting rate

The interest rate offered on an investment type insurance policy.


Creditor

lender of money.


Cross-border risk

Refers to the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated
with a particular country as opposed to events associated solely with a particular economic or financial agent.


Cum rights

With rights.


Currency risk

Related: Exchange rate risk


Currency risk sharing

An agreement by the parties to a transaction to share the currency risk associated with
the transaction. The arrangement involves a customized hedge contract embedded in the underlying
transaction.


Current assets

Value of cash, accounts receivable, inventories, marketable securities and other assets that
could be converted to cash in less than 1 year.


Date of payment

Date dividend checks are mailed.


Days in receivables

Average collection period.


Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.


Days' sales outstanding

Average collection period.


Debt/equity ratio

Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided
by shareholders. Determined by dividing long-term debt by common stockholder equity.


Debt

Money borrowed.


Debt capacity

Ability to borrow. The amount a firm can borrow up to the point where the firm value no
longer increases.


Debt displacement

The amount of borrowing that leasing displaces. firms that do a lot of leasing will be
forced to cut back on borrowing.


Debt instrument

An asset requiring fixed dollar payments, such as a government or corporate bond.


Debt leverage

The amplification of the return earned on equity when an investment or firm is financed
partially with borrowed money.


Debt limitation

A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to incur additional indebtedness.


Debt market

The market for trading debt instruments.


Debt ratio

Total debt divided by total assets.


Debt relief

Reducing the principal and/or interest payments on LDC loans.


Debt securities

IOUs created through loan-type transactions - commercial paper, bank CDs, bills, bonds, and
other instruments.


Debt service

Interest payment plus repayments of principal to creditors, that is, retirement of debt.


Debt service parity approach

An analysis wherein the alternatives under consideration will provide the firm
with the exact same schedule of after-tax debt payments (including both interest and principal).


Debt-service coverage ratio

Earnings before interest and income taxes plus one-third rental charges, divided
by interest expense plus one-third rental charges plus the quantity of principal repayments divided by one
minus the tax rate.


Debt swap

A set of transactions (also called a debt-equity swap) in which a firm buys a country's dollar bank
debt at a discount and swaps this debt with the central bank for local currency that it can use to acquire local
equity.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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