Financial Terms Weighted average portfolio yield

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# Definition of Weighted average portfolio yield

## Weighted average portfolio yield

The weighted average of the yield of all the bonds in a portfolio.

# Related Terms:

## Active portfolio strategy

A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a
better performance than a portfolio that is simply diversified broadly. Related: passive portfolio strategy

## Annual percentage yield (APY)

The effective, or true, annual rate of return. The APY is the rate actually
earned or paid in one year, taking into account the affect of compounding. The APY is calculated by taking
one plus the periodic rate and raising it to the number of periods in a year. For example, a 1% per month rate
has an APY of 12.68% (1.01^12).

## Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return

Arithmetic mean return.

## Average

An arithmetic mean of selected stocks intended to represent the behavior of the market or some
component of it. One good example is the widely quoted Dow Jones Industrial average, which adds the
current prices of the 30 DJIA's stocks, and divides the results by a predetermined number, the divisor.

## Average accounting return

The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average
book value of the investment during its life.

## Average age of accounts receivable

The weighted-average age of all of the firm's outstanding invoices.

## Average collection period, or days' receivables

The ratio of accounts receivables to sales, or the total
amount of credit extended per dollar of daily sales (average AR/sales * 365).

## Average cost of capital

A firm's required payout to the bondholders and to the stockholders expressed as a
percentage of capital contributed to the firm. average cost of capital is computed by dividing the total
required cost of capital by the total amount of contributed capital.

## Average life

Also referred to as the weighted-average life (WAL). The average number of years that each
dollar of unpaid principal due on the mortgage remains outstanding. average life is computed as the weighted average time to the receipt of all future cash flows, using as the weights the dollar amounts of the principal
paydowns.

## Average maturity

The average time to maturity of securities held by a mutual fund. Changes in interest rates
have greater impact on funds with longer average life.

## Average (across-day) measures

An estimation of price that uses the average or representative price of a
large number of trades.

## Average rate of return (ARR)

The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested.

## Average tax rate

Taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.

## Bond equivalent yield

Bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method. Differs from annual
effective yield.

## Bond-equivalent yield

The annualized yield to maturity computed by doubling the semiannual yield.

## Capital gains yield

The price change portion of a stock's return.

## Complete portfolio

The entire portfolio, including risky and risk-free assets.

## Convenience yield

The extra advantage that firms derive from holding the commodity rather than the future.

## Coupon equivalent yield

True interest cost expressed on the basis of a 365-day year.

## Current yield

For bonds or notes, the coupon rate divided by the market price of the bond.

## Dedicating a portfolio

Related: cash flow matching.

## Dividend yield (Funds)

Indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past 12
months. Assumes fund was purchased 1 year ago. Reflects effect of sales charges (at current rates), but not
redemption charges.

## Dividend yield (Stocks)

Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.

## Dollar-weighted rate of return

Also called the internal rate of return, the interest rate that will make the
present value of the cash flows from all the subperiods in the evaluation period plus the terminal market value
of the portfolio equal to the initial market value of the portfolio.

## Dow Jones industrial average

This is the best known U.S.index of stocks. It contains 30 stocks that trade on
the New York Stock Exchange. The Dow, as it is called, is a barometer of how shares of the largest
U.S.companies are performing. There are thousands of investment indexes around the world for stocks,
bonds, currencies and commodities.

## Earnings yield

The ratio of earnings per share after allowing for tax and interest payments on fixed interest
debt, to the current share price. The inverse of the price/earnings ratio. It's the Total Twelve Months earnings
divided by number of outstanding shares, divided by the recent price, multiplied by 100. The end result is
shown in percentage.

## Effective annual yield

Annualized interest rate on a security computed using compound interest techniques.

## Efficient portfolio

A portfolio that provides the greatest expected return for a given level of risk (i.e. standard
deviation), or equivalently, the lowest risk for a given expected return.
Efficient set Graph representing a set of portfolios that maximize expected return at each level of portfolio
risk.

## Equivalent bond yield

Annual yield on a short-term, non-interest bearing security calculated so as to be
comparable to yields quoted on coupon securities.

## Equivalent taxable yield

The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
yield as a tax-exempt issue.

## Excess return on the market portfolio

The difference between the return on the market portfolio and the
riskless rate.

## Factor portfolio

A well-diversified portfolio constructed to have a beta of 1.0 on one factor and a beta of
zero on any other factors.

## Feasible portfolio

A portfolio that an investor can construct given the assets available.

## Feasible set of portfolios

The collection of all feasible portfolios.

## Flattening of the yield curve

A change in the yield curve where the spread between the yield on a long-term
and short-term Treasury has decreased. Compare steepening of the yield curve and butterfly shift.

## Hedged portfolio

A portfolio consisting of the long position in the stock and the short position in the call
option, so as to be riskless and produce a return that equals the risk-free interest rate.

See:junk bond.

## Indicated yield

The yield, based on the most recent quarterly rate times four. To determine the yield, divide
the annual dividend by the price of the stock. The resulting number is represented as a percentage. See:
dividend yield.

## Leveraged portfolio

A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed.

## Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill

## Leveraged portfolio

A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed.

## Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill Lynch & Co.

## Market portfolio

A portfolio consisting of all assets available to investors, with each asset held -in
proportion to its market value relative to the total market value of all assets.

## Market value-weighted index

An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average
of the returns on each security in the index, with the weights proportional to outstanding market value.

## Markowitz efficient portfolio

Also called a mean-variance efficient portfolio, a portfolio that has the highest
expected return at a given level of risk.

## Markowitz efficient set of portfolios

The collection of all efficient portfolios, graphically referred to as the
Markowitz efficient frontier.

## Mean-variance efficient portfolio

Related: Markowitz efficient portfolio

## Minimum-variance portfolio

The portfolio of risky assets with lowest variance.
Minority interest An outside ownership interest in a subsidiary that is consolidated with the parent for
financial reporting purposes.

## Modern portfolio theory

Principles underlying the analysis and evaluation of rational portfolio choices
based on risk-return trade-offs and efficient diversification.

## Moving average

Used in charts and technical analysis, the average of security or commodity prices
constructed in a period as short as a few days or as Long as several years and showing trends for the latest
interval. As each new variable is included in calculating the average, the last variable of the series is deleted.

## Non-parallel shift in the yield curve

A shift in the yield curve in which yields do not change by the same
number of basis points for every maturity. Related: Parallel shift in the yield curve.

## Normal portfolio

A customized benchmark that includes all the securities from which a manager normally
chooses, weighted as the manager would weight them in a portfolio.

## Optimal portfolio

An efficient portfolio most preferred by an investor because its risk/reward characteristics
approximate the investor's utility function. A portfolio that maximizes an investor's preferences with respect
to return and risk.

## Parallel shift in the yield curve

A shift in the yield curve in which the change in the yield on all maturities is
the same number of basis points. In other words, if the 3 month T-bill increases 100 basis points (one
percent), then the 6 month, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year, 20 year, and 30 year rates increase by 100 basis points as
well.
Related: Non-parallel shift in the yield curve.

## Passive portfolio strategy

A strategy that involves minimal expectational input, and instead relies on
diversification to match the performance of some market index. A passive strategy assumes that the
marketplace will reflect all available information in the price paid for securities, and therefore, does not
attempt to find mispriced securities. Related: active portfolio strategy

## Passive portfolio

A market index portfolio.

## Portfolio

A collection of investments, real and/or financial.

## Portfolio insurance

A strategy using a leveraged portfolio in the underlying stock to create a synthetic put
option. The strategy's goal is to ensure that the value of the portfolio does not fall below a certain level.

## Portfolio internal rate of return

The rate of return computed by first determining the cash flows for all the
bonds in the portfolio and then finding the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows
equal to the market value of the portfolio.

## Portfolio opportunity set

The expected return/standard deviation pairs of all portfolios that can be
constructed from a given set of assets.

## Portfolio management

Related: Investment management

## Portfolio manager

Related: Investment manager

## Portfolio separation theorem

An investor's choice of a risky investment portfolio is separate from his
attitude towards risk. Related:Fisher's separation theorem.

## Portfolio turnover rate

For an investment company, an annualized rate found by dividing the lesser of
purchases and sales by the average of portfolio assets.

## Portfolio variance

weighted sum of the covariance and variances of the assets in a portfolio.

## Pure yield pickup swap

Moving to higher yield bonds.

## Realized compound yield

yield assuming that coupon payments are invested at the going market interest
rate at the time of their receipt and rolled over until the bond matures.

## Relative yield spread

The ratio of the yield spread to the yield level.

## Reoffering yield

In a purchase and sale, the yield to maturity at which the underwriter offers to sell the bonds
to investors.

## Replicating portfolio

A portfolio constructed to match an index or benchmark.

## Required yield

Generally referring to bonds, the yield required by the marketplace to match available returns
for financial instruments with comparable risk.

## Riding the yield curve

Buying long-term bonds in anticipation of capital gains as yields fall with the
declining maturity of the bonds.

## Simple moving average

The mean, calculated at any time over a past period of fixed length.

## Steepening of the yield curve

A change in the yield curve where the spread between the yield on a long-term
and short-term Treasury has increased. Compare flattening of the yield curve and butterfly shift.

## Structured portfolio strategy

A strategy in which a portfolio is designed to achieve the performance of some
predetermined liabilities that must be paid out in the future.

## Tilted portfolio

An indexing strategy that is linked to active management through the emphasis of a
particular industry sector, selected performance factors such as earnings momentum, dividend yield, priceearnings
ratio, or selected economic factors such as interest rates and inflation.

## Time-weighted rate of return

Related: Geometric mean return.

## Weighted average cost of capital

Expected return on a portfolio of all the firm's securities. Used as a hurdle
rate for capital investment.

## Weighted average coupon

The weighted average of the gross interest rate of the mortgages underlying the
pool as of the pool issue date, with the balance of each mortgage used as the weighting factor.

## Weighted average life

See:average life.

## Weighted average maturity

The WAM of a MBS is the weighted average of the remaining terms to maturity
of the mortgages underlying the collateral pool at the date of issue, using as the weighting factor the balance
of each of the mortgages as of the issue date.

## Weighted average remaining maturity

The average remaining term of the mortgages underlying a MBS.

## Well diversified portfolio

A portfolio spread out over many securities in such a way that the weight in any
security is small. The risk of a well-diversified portfolio closely approximates the systemic risk of the overall
market, the unsystematic risk of each security having been diversified out of the portfolio.

## Yield

The percentage rate of return paid on a stock in the form of dividends, or the effective rate of interest
paid on a bond or note.

## Yield curve

The graphical depiction of the relationship between the yield on bonds of the same credit quality
but different maturities. Related: Term structure of interest rates. Harvey (1991) finds that the inversions of
the yield curve (short-term rates greater than long term rates) have preceded the last five U.S. recessions. The
yield curve can accurately forecast the turning points of the business cycle.

## Yield curve option-pricing models

Models that can incorporate different volatility assumptions along the
yield curve, such as the Black-Derman-Toy model. Also called arbitrage-free option-pricing models.

## Yield curve strategies

Positioning a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in the shape of the Treasury yield curve.

## Yield ratio

The quotient of two bond yields.

## Yield spread strategies

Strategies that involve positioning a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in
yield spreads between sectors of the bond market.

## Yield to call

The percentage rate of a bond or note, if you were to buy and hold the security until the call date.
This yield is valid only if the security is called prior to maturity. Generally bonds are callable over several
years and normally are called at a slight premium. The calculation of yield to call is based on the coupon rate,
length of time to the call and the market price.

## Yield to maturity

The percentage rate of return paid on a bond, note or other fixed income security if you
buy and hold it to its maturity date. The calculation for YTM is based on the coupon rate, length of time to
maturity and market price. It assumes that coupon interest paid over the life of the bond will be reinvested at
the same rate.

## Yield to worst

The bond yield computed by using the lower of either the yield to maturity or the yield to call
on every possible call date.

## Zero-beta portfolio

A portfolio constructed to represent the risk-free asset, that is, having a beta of zero.

## Zero-investment portfolio

A portfolio of zero net value established by buying and shorting component
securities, usually in the context of an arbitrage strategy.

## WEIGHTED AVERAGE

An inventory valuation method that calculates a weighted average cost per unit for all the goods available for sale.
Multiplying that figure by the total units in ending inventory gives you the inventoryâ€™s value.

## Weighted average cost of capital

See cost of capital.

## Weighted average

A method of accounting for inventory.

## dividend yield ratio

Cash dividends paid by a business over the most
recent 12 months (called the trailing 12 months) divided by the current
market price per share of the stock. This ratio is reported in the daily
stock trading tables in the Wall Street Journal and other major newspapers.

## weighted-average cost of capital

weighted means that the proportions of
debt capital and equity capital of a business are used to calculate its
average cost of capital. This key benchmark rate depends on the interest
rate(s) on its debt and the ROE goal established by a business. This is a
return-on-capital rate and can be applied either on a before-tax basis or
an after-tax basis. A business should earn at least its weighted-average
rate on the capital invested in its assets. The weighted-average cost-ofcapital
rate is used as the discount rate to calculate the present value
(PV) of specific investments.

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