Financial Terms
Undepreciated Capital Costs

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Definition of Undepreciated Capital Costs

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Undepreciated Capital Costs

The tax definition of the value of an asset that is eligible for tax deprecation.



Related Terms:

Agency costs

The incremental costs of having an agent make decisions for a principal.


Average cost of capital

A firm's required payout to the bondholders and to the stockholders expressed as a
percentage of capital contributed to the firm. Average cost of capital is computed by dividing the total
required cost of capital by the total amount of contributed capital.


Capital

Money invested in a firm.


Capital account

Net result of public and private international investment and lending activities.


Capital allocation

decision Allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.



Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk
that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification.
The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security
plus a risk premium.


Capital budget

A firm's set of planned capital expenditures.


Undepreciated Capital Costs Image 2

Capital budgeting

The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.


Capital expenditures

Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as
property, plant or equipment.


Capital flight

The transfer of capital abroad in response to fears of political risk.


Capital gain

When a stock is sold for a profit, it's the difference between the net sales price of securities and
their net cost, or original basis. If a stock is sold below cost, the difference is a capital loss.


Capital gains yield

The price change portion of a stock's return.


Capital lease

A lease obligation that has to be capitalized on the balance sheet.


Capital loss

The difference between the net cost of a security and the net sale price, if that security is sold at a loss.


Capital market

The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).


Capital market efficiency

Reflects the relative amount of wealth wasted in making transactions. An efficient
capital market allows the transfer of assets with little wealth loss. See: efficient market hypothesis.


Capital market imperfections view

The view that issuing debt is generally valuable but that the firm's
optimal choice of capital structure is a dynamic process that involves the other views of capital structure (net
corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), which result from considerations of
asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs.


Capital market line (CML)

The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.



Capital rationing

Placing one or more limits on the amount of new investment undertaken by a firm, either
by using a higher cost of capital, or by setting a maximum on parts of, and/or the entirety of, the capital
budget.


Capital structure

The makeup of the liabilities and stockholders' equity side of the balance sheet, especially
the ratio of debt to equity and the mixture of short and long maturities.


Capital surplus

Amounts of directly contributed equity capital in excess of the par value.


Capitalization

The debt and/or equity mix that fund a firm's assets.


Capitalization method

A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the manager purchases a
number of the largest-capitalized names in the index stock in proportion to their capitalization.


Capitalization ratios

Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. capitalization ratios can be
interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.


Capitalization table

A table showing the capitalization of a firm, which typically includes the amount of
capital obtained from each source - long-term debt and common equity - and the respective capitalization
ratios.


Capitalized

Recorded in asset accounts and then depreciated or amortized, as is appropriate for expenditures
for items with useful lives greater than one year.


Capitalized interest

Interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then
amortized through the income statement over time.


Carring costs

costs that increase with increases in the level of investment in current assets.



Complete capital market

A market in which there is a distinct marketable security for each and every
possible outcome.


Cost of capital

The required return for a capital budgeting project.


Cost of limited partner capital

The discount rate that equates the after-tax inflows with outflows for capital
raised from limited partners.


Dedicated capital

Total par value (number of shares issued, multiplied by the par value of each share). Also
called dedicated value.


Efficient capital market

A market in which new information is very quickly reflected accurately in share
prices.


Execution costs

The difference between the execution price of a security and the price that would have
existed in the absence of a trade, which can be further divided into market impact costs and market timing
costs.


Financial distress costs

Legal and administrative costs of liquidation or reorganization. Also includes
implied costs associated with impaired ability to do business (indirect costs).


Friction costs

costs, both implied and direct, associated with a transaction. Such costs include time, effort,
money, and associated tax effects of gathering information and making a transaction.


Hard capital rationing

capital rationing that under no circumstances can be violated.


Human capital

The unique capabilities and expertise of individuals.


Incremental costs and benefits

costs and benefits that would occur if a particular course of action were
taken compared to those that would occur if that course of action were not taken.


Information costs

Transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset.
Related: search costs.


Issued share capital

Total amount of shares that are in issue. Related: outstanding shares.


Legal capital

Value at which a company's shares are recorded in its books.


Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.


Market capitalization

The total dollar value of all outstanding shares. Computed as shares times current
market price. It is a measure of corporate size.


Market capitalization rate

Expected return on a security. The market-consensus estimate of the appropriate
discount rate for a firm's cash flows.


Market impact costs

Also called price impact costs, the result of a bid/ask spread and a dealer's price concession.


Market timing costs

costs that arise from price movement of the stock during the time of the transaction
which is attributed to other activity in the stock.


Net working capital

Current assets minus current liabilities. Often simply referred to as working capital.


Nondiversifiability of human capital

The difficulty of diversifying one's human capital (the unique
capabilities and expertise of individuals) and employment effort.


Opportunity cost of capital

Expected return that is foregone by investing in a project rather than in
comparable financial securities.


Opportunity costs

The difference in the performance of an actual investment and a desired investment
adjusted for fixed costs and execution costs. The performance differential is a consequence of not being able
to implement all desired trades. Most valuable alternative that is given up.


Other capital

In the balance of payments, other capital is a residual category that groups all the capital
transactions that have not been included in direct investment, portfolio investment, and reserves categories. It
is divided into long-term capital and short-term capital and, because of its residual status, can differ from
country to country. Generally speaking, other long-term capital includes most non-negotiable instruments of a
year or more like bank loans and mortgages. Other short-term capital includes financial assets of less than a
year such as currency, deposits, and bills.


Outstanding share capital

Issued share capital less the par value of shares that are held in the company's treasury.


Pecking-order view (of capital structure)

The argument that external financing transaction costs, especially
those associated with the problem of adverse selection, create a dynamic environment in which firms have a
preference, or pecking-order of preferred sources of financing, when all else is equal. Internally generated
funds are the most preferred, new debt is next, debt-equity hybrids are next, and new equity is the least
preferred source.


Perfect capital market

A market in which there are never any arbitrage opportunities.


Perfect market view (of capital structure)

Analysis of a firm's capital structure decision, which shows the
irrelevance of capital structure in a perfect capital market.


Personal tax view (of capital structure)

The argument that the difference in personal tax rates between
income from debt and income from equity eliminates the disadvantage from the double taxation (corporate
and personal) of income from equity.


Pie model of capital structure

A model of the debt/equity ratio of the firms, graphically depicted in slices of
a pie that represent the value of the firm in the capital markets.


Planned capital expenditure program

capital expenditure program as outlined in the corporate financial plan.


Price impact costs

Related: market impact costs


Pro forma capital structure analysis

A method of analyzing the impact of alternative capital structure
choices on a firm's credit statistics and reported financial results, especially to determine whether the firm will
be able to use projected tax shield benefits fully.


Real capital

Wealth that can be represented in financial terms, such as savings account balances, financial
securities, and real estate.


Round-trip transactions costs

costs of completing a transaction, including commissions, market impact
costs, and taxes.


Search costs

costs associated with locating a counterparty to a trade, including explicit costs (such as
advertising) and implicit costs (such as the value of time). Related:information costs.


"Soft" Capital Rationing

capital rationing that under certain circumstances can be violated or even viewed
as made up of targets rather than absolute constraints.


Static theory of capital structure

Theory that the firm's capital structure is determined by a trade-off of the
value of tax shields against the costs of bankruptcy.


Sunk costs

costs that have been incurred and cannot be reversed.


Trading costs

costs of buying and selling marketable securities and borrowing. Trading costs include
commissions, slippage, and the bid/ask spread. See: transaction costs.


Transactions costs

The time, effort, and money necessary, including such things as commission fees and the
cost of physically moving the asset from seller to buyer. Related: Round-trip transaction costs, Information
costs, search costs.


Venture capital

An investment in a start-up business that is perceived to have excellent growth prospects but
does not have access to capital markets. Type of financing sought by early-stage companies seeking to grow rapidly.


Weighted average cost of capital

Expected return on a portfolio of all the firm's securities. Used as a hurdle
rate for capital investment.


Working capital

Defined as the difference in current assets and current liabilities (excluding short-term
debt). Current assets may or may not include cash and cash equivalents, depending on the company.


Working capital management

The management of current assets and current liabilities to maximize shortterm liquidity.


Working capital ratio

Working capital expressed as a percentage of sales.


CAPITAL

The money, raised by selling stock or bonds or taking out loans, that you use to start, operate, and grow a business.


CAPITAL IN EXCESS OF PAR VALUE

What a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share.


Avoidable costs

costs that are identifiable with and able to be influenced by decisions made at the business
unit (e.g. division) level.


Capital

The shareholders’ investment in the business; the difference between the assets and liabilities
of a business.


Capital employed

The total of debt and equity, i.e. the total funds in the business.


Capitalize

To make a payment that might otherwise be an expense (in the Profit and Loss account) an asset
(in the Balance Sheet).


Capital market

The market in which investors buy and sell shares of companies, normally associated with a Stock Exchange.


Cost of capital

The costs incurred by an organization to fund all its investments, comprising the risk-adjusted
cost of equity and debt weighted by the mix of equity and debt.


Direct costs

costs that are readily traceable to particular products or services.


Fixed costs

costs that do not change with increases or decreases in the volume of goods or services
produced, within the relevant range.


Indirect costs

costs that are necessary to produce a product/service but are not readily traceable to particular products or services – see overhead.


Period costs

The costs that relate to a period of time.


Return on capital employed (ROCE)

The operating profit before interest and tax as a percentage of the total shareholders’ funds plus
the long-term debt of the business.


Semi-fixed costs

costs that are constant within a defined level of activity but that can increase or decrease when
activity reaches upper and lower levels.


Semi-variable costs

costs that have both fixed and variable components.


Standard costs

A budget cost for materials and labour used for decision-making, usually expressed as a per unit cost that is applied to standard quantities from a bill of materials and to standard times from a
routing.


Sunk costs

costs that have been incurred in the past.


Weighted average cost of capital

See cost of capital.


Working capital

Current assets less current liabilities. Money that revolves in the business as part of the process of buying, making and selling goods and services, particularly in relation to debtors, creditors, inventory and bank.


Additional paid-in capital

Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with capital in excess of par.


Capital in excess par

Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with additional paid-in capital.


Contributed capital

The amount put into the business by the owners by purchasing stock and by paying more than the par value for the stock (additional paid-in capital or capital in excess of par).


capital

A very broad term rooted in economic theory and referring to
money and other assets that are invested in a business or other venture
for the general purpose of earning a profit, or a return on the investment.
Generally speaking, the sources of capital for a business are
divided between debt and equity. Debt, as you know, is borrowed money
on which interest is paid. Equity is the broad term for the ownership
capital invested in a business and is most often called owners’ equity.
Owners’ equity arises from two quite different sources: (1) money or
other assets invested in the business by its owners and (2) profit earned
by the business that is retained and not distributed to its owners (called
retained earnings).


capital budgeting

Refers generally to analysis procedures for ranking
investments, given a limited amount of total capital that has to be allocated
among the various capital investment opportunities of a business.
The term sometimes is used interchangeably with the analysis techniques
themselves, such as calculating present value, net present value,
and the internal rate of return of investments.


capital expenditures

Refers to investments by a business in long-term
operating assets, including land and buildings, heavy machinery and
equipment, vehicles, tools, and other economic resources used in the
operations of a business. The term capital is used to emphasize that
these are relatively large amounts and that a business has to raise capital
for these expenditures from debt and equity sources.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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