Definition of Synchronous data
data available at the same time. In testing option-pricing models, the price of the option
and of the underlying should be synchronous, representing the same moment in the market.
bits of knowledge or facts that have not been summarized
or categorized in a manner useful to a decision maker
a form of analysis in which statistical techniques
are used to uncover answers to important questions about
The exchange of information electronically, directly from one firm's
computer to another firm's computer, in a structured format.
the computer-to-computer transfer of information in virtual real time using standardized formats developed by the American National Standards Institute
the use of all techniques that help an organization achieve its goals
a valuation method that uses actual direct
material, direct labor, and overhead charges in determining
the cost of Work in Process Inventory
A means of compensating the broker of a program trade solely on the basis of commission
established through bids submitted by various brokerage firms. agency incentive arrangement. A means of
compensating the broker of a program trade using benchmark prices for issues to be traded in determining
commissions or fees.
An equation determining aggregate output as a function of aggregate inputs such as labor and capital.
A model for determining the required rate of return on an asset.
a method of determining interest in which interest that was earned in prior periods is added to the original investment so that, in each successive period, interest is earned on both principal and interest
Rules set by the Chicago Board of Trade for determining the invoice price of each
acceptable deliverable Treasury issue against the Treasury Bond futures contract.
a discipline that focuses on techniques or
methods for determining the cost of a project, process, or
thing through direct measurement, arbitrary assignment, or
systematic and rational allocation
A method of expensing the cost of a resource consumed by first determining
the total investment in the resource (such as the procurement of a coal mine),
then determining the total amount of extractable resource (such as tons of available
coal), and then assigning costs to each consumed unit of the resource, based on the
proportion of the total available amount that has been used.
a cost that is periodically reviewed by a
decision maker in a process of determining whether it continues
to be in accord with ongoing policies; a cost that
arises from a management decision to fund an activity at
a specified cost amount for a specified period of time, generally
one year; a cost that can be reduced to zero in the
short run if necessity so dictates
An adjective indicating that something is determined by forces unrelated to the theory determining the variables under investigation.
The process of determining prospectively whether strategies are likely to achieve the target
results that are consistent with organizational goals.
A discipline concerned with determining value and making decisions. The finance function allocates
resources, which includes acquiring, investing, and managing resources.
fixed expenses (costs)
Expenses or costs that remain the same in amount,
or fixed, over the short run and do not vary with changes in sales volume
or sales revenue or other measures of business activity. Over the
longer run, however, these costs increase or decrease as the business
grows or declines. Fixed operating costs provide capacity to carry on
operations and make sales. Fixed manufacturing overhead costs provide
production capacity. Fixed expenses are a key pivot point for the analysis
of profit behavior, especially for determining the breakeven point and for
analyzing strategies to improve profit performance.
Financial statement that summarizes sales revenue
and expenses for a period and reports one or more profit lines for the
period. It’s one of the three primary financial statements of a business.
The bottom-line profit figure is labeled net income or net earnings by
most businesses. Externally reported income statements disclose less
information than do internal management profit reports—but both are
based on the same profit accounting principles and methods. Keep in
mind that profit is not known until accountants complete the recording
of sales revenue and expenses for the period (as well as determining any
extraordinary gains and losses that should be recorded in the period).
Profit measurement depends on the reliability of a business’s accounting
system and the choices of accounting methods by the business. Caution:
A business may engage in certain manipulations of its accounting methods,
and managers may intervene in the normal course of operations for
the purpose of improving the amount of profit recorded in the period,
which is called earnings management, income smoothing, cooking the
books, and other pejorative terms.
Matrix bill of material
A bill of materials chart listing the bills for similar products,
which is useful for determining common components.
normal cost system
a valuation method that uses actual
costs of direct material and direct labor in conjunction with
a predetermined overhead rate or rates in determining the
cost of Work in Process Inventory
The evaluation of a manager's performance which involves, first, determining
whether the money manager added value by outperforming the established benchmark (performance
measurement) and, second, determining how the money manager achieved the calculated return (performance
the process of determining the degree
of success in accomplishing a task; it equates to both
effectiveness and efficiency
A formula for determining policy. Contrast with discretionary policy.
Portfolio internal rate of return
The rate of return computed by first determining the cash flows for all the
bonds in the portfolio and then finding the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows
equal to the market value of the portfolio.
Price discovery process
The process of determining the prices of the assets in the marketplace through the
interactions of buyers and sellers.
A method for determining the profitability of an investment. It is
calculated by dividing the present value of the future net cash flows
by the initial cash investment.
the process of determining that product
or service quality conforms to designated specifications
usually through an inspection process
return on assets (ROA)
Although there is no single uniform practice for
calculating this ratio, generally it equals operating profit (before interest
and income tax) for a year divided by the total assets that are used to
generate the profit. ROA is the key ratio to test whether a business is
earning enough on its assets to cover its cost of capital. ROA is used for
determining financial leverage gain (or loss).
The monetary value placed on security by a lender in determining the extent to which it can make loans against such security.
a process of determining the amount of change that must occur in a variable before a different decision would be made
a method of determining interest in which interest is earned only on the original investment (or principal) amount
an approach to personnel management
that requires a department to analyze its staffing needs by
considering its long-term objectives and those of the overall
company and determining a specific combination of
permanent and temporary employees with the best skills
to meet those needs
View that incentives to work, save, and invest play an important role in determining economic activity by affecting the supply side of the economy.
the process of determining the specific
means or objectives by which the strategic plans of the
organization will be achieved; it is short-range in nature
(usually 1–18 months)
a method of determining what the cost of a
product should be based on the product’s estimated selling
price less the desired profit
The act or process of determining the value or price of something. (see fair market value)
the process of categorizing the nature (favorable or unfavorable) of the differences between standard and actual costs and determining the reasons for those differences
Related to : financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.