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Swap buy-back

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Definition of Swap buy-back

Swap Buy-back Image 1

Swap buy-back

The sale of an interest rate swap by one counterparty to the other, effectively ending the swap.



Related Terms:

Amortizing interest rate swap

swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates
rise (decline).


Asset-Backed Securities

Bond or note secured by assets of company.


Asset-backed security

A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
on personal property, not real estate.


Asset for asset swap

Creditors exchange the debt of one defaulting borrower for the debt of another
defaulting borrower.


Asset swap

An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's assets so as to
provide a better match with its iabilities.



Back fee

The fee paid on the extension date if the buyer wishes to continue the option.


Back flush

The subsequent subtraction from inventory records of those parts used
to assemble a product, based on the number of finished goods produced.


Swap Buy-back Image 2

Back office

Brokerage house clerical operations that support, but do not include, the trading of stocks and
other securities. Includes all written confirmation and settlement of trades, record keeping and regulatory
compliance.
back-end loan fund
A mutual fund that charges investors a fee to sell (redeem) shares, often ranging from
4% to 6%. Some back-end load funds impose a full commission if the shares are redeemed within a
designated time, such as one year. The commission decreases the longer the investor holds the shares. The
formal name for the back-end load is the contingent deferred sales charge, or CDSC.


Back To Back Annuity

This term refers to the simultaneous issue of a life annuity with a non-guaranteed period and a guaranteed life insurance policy [usually whole life or term to 100]. The face value of the life insurance would be the same amount that was used to purchase the annuity. This combination of life annuity providing the highest payout of all types of annuities, along with a guaranteed life insurance policy allowed an uninsurable person to convert his/her RRSP into the best choice of annuity and guarantee that upon his/her death, the full value of the annuity would be paid tax free through the life insurance policy to his family members. However, in the early 1990's, the Federal tax authorities put a stop to the issuing of standard life rates to rated or uninsurable applicants. Insuring a life annuity in this manner is still an excellent way to provide guaranteed tax free funds to family members but the application for the annuity and the application for the life insurance are separate transactions and today, most likely conducted through two different insurance companies so that there is no suspicion of preferential treatment given to the life insurance application.


Back-to-back financing

An intercompany loan channeled through a bank.


Back-to-back loan

A loan in which two companies in separate countries borrow each other's currency for a
specific time period and repay the other's currency at an agreed upon maturity.


Back-up

1) When bond yields and prices fall, the market is said to back-up.
2) When an investor swaps out of one security into another of shorter current maturity he is said to back up.


Backdating

A procedure for making the effective date of a policy earlier than the application date. backdating is often used to make the age of the consumer at policy issue lower than it actually was in order to get a lower premium.


backflush costing

a streamlined cost accounting method that speeds up, simplifies, and reduces accounting effort in an environment that minimizes inventory balances, requires
few allocations, uses standard costs, and has minimal variances
from standard


Backwardation

A market condition in which futures prices are lower in the distant delivery months than in
the nearest delivery month. This situation may occur in when the costs of storing the product until eventual
delivery are effectively subtracted from the price today. The opposite of contango.


Builder buydown loan

A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the
early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buy down the mortgage rate to a lower level than the
prevailing market loan rate for some period of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the interest-rate amount
for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown).


Buy

To purchase an asset; taking a long position.


Buy-and-hold strategy

A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the
time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.



Buy-back

Another term for a repo.


Buy in

To cover, offset or close out a short position. Related: evening up, liquidation.


Buy limit order

A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
price or lower.
Related: Sell limit order.


Buy on close

To buy at the end of the trading session at a price within the closing range.


Buy on margin

A transaction in which an investor borrows to buy additional shares, using the shares
themselves as collateral.


Buy on opening

To buy at the beginning of a trading session at a price within the opening range.


Buy/Sell Agreement

This is an agreement entered into by the owners of a business to define the conditions under which the interests of each shareholder will be bought and sold. The agreement sets the value of each shareholders interest and stipulates what happens when one of the owners wishes to dispose of his/her interest during his/her lifetime as well as disposal of interest upon death or disability. Life insurance, critical illness coverage and disability insurance are major considerations to help fund this type of agreement.


Buy-side analyst

A financial analyst employed by a non-brokerage firm, typically one of the larger money
management firms that purchase securities on their own accounts.


Buydowns

Mortgages in which monthly payments consist of principal and interest, with portions of these
payments during the early period of the loan being provided by a third party to reduce the borrower's monthly
payments.


Buying the index

Purchasing the stocks in the S&P 500 in the same proportion as the index to achieve the
same return.



Buyout

Purchase of a controlling interest (or percent of shares) of a company's stock. A leveraged buy-out is
done with borrowed money.


Call swaption

A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The
writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating rate payer.


charge-back system

a system using transfer prices; see transfer
price


Circus swap

A fixed rate currency swap against floating U.S. dollar LIBOR payments.


Conditional Buyer

One of two parties to a conditional sale agreement, the other being the conditional seller.


Currency swap

An agreement to swap a series of specified payment obligations denominated in one currency
for a series of specified payment obligations denominated in a different currency.


Debt swap

A set of transactions (also called a debt-equity swap) in which a firm buys a country's dollar bank
debt at a discount and swaps this debt with the central bank for local currency that it can use to acquire local
equity.


Differential swap

swap between two LIBO rates of interest, e.g. yen LIBOR for dollar LIBOR. Payments are
in one currency.


Discounted payback period rule

An investment decision rule in which the cash flows are discounted at an
interest rate and the payback rule is applied on these discounted cash flows.


Dividend clawback

With respect to a project financing, an arrangement under which the sponsors of a project
agree to contribute as equity any prior dividends received from the project to the extent necessary to cover
any cash deficiencies.


Equity Buy-Back

Refers to the investors percentage ownership of a company that can be re-acquired by the company, usually at a pre-determined amount.


Equity swap

A swap in which the cash flows that are exchanged are based on the total return on some stock
market index and an interest rate (either a fixed rate or a floating rate). Related: interest rate swap.


Extension swap

Extending maturity through a swap, e.g. selling a 2-year note and buying one with a slightly
longer current maturity.


Feedback

The retrospective process of measuring performance, comparing it with plan and taking corrective action.


Foreign exchange swap

An agreement to exchange stipulated amounts of one currency for another currency
at one or more future dates.


Forward buying

The purchase of items exceeding the quantity levels indicated
by current manufacturing requirements.


Interest rate swap

A binding agreement between counterparties to exchange periodic interest payments on
some predetermined dollar principal, which is called the notional principal amount. For example, one party
will pay fixed and receive variable.


Intermarket spread swaps

An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a
realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.


Leveraged buyout

The purchase of one business entity by another, largely using borrowed
funds. The borrowings are typically paid off through the future cash flow of
the purchased entity.


Leveraged buyout (LBO)

A transaction used for taking a public corporation private financed through the use
of debt funds: bank loans and bonds. Because of the large amount of debt relative to equity in the new
corporation, the bonds are typically rated below investment grade, properly referred to as high-yield bonds or
junk bonds. Investors can participate in an LBO through either the purchase of the debt (i.e., purchase of the
bonds or participation in the bank loan) or the purchase of equity through an LBO fund that specializes in
such investments.


leveraged buyout (LBO)

Acquisition of the firm by a private group using substantial borrowed funds.


Liability swap

An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's liabilities so
as to provide a better match with its assets.


Limitation on sale-and-leaseback

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to enter into
sale and lease-back transactions.


Lookback option

An option that allows the buyer to choose as the option strike price any price of the
underlying asset that has occurred during the life of the option. If a call, the buyer will choose the minimal
price, whereas if a put, the buyer will choose the maximum price. This option will always be in the money.


Loss carryback

The offsetting of a current year loss against the reported taxable
income of previous years.


make-or-buy decision

a decision that compares the cost of
internally manufacturing a component of a final product
(or providing a service function) with the cost of purchasing
it from outside suppliers (outsourcing) or from another
division of the company at a specified transfer price


Management buyout (MBO)

Leveraged buyout whereby the acquiring group is led by the firm's management.


management buyout (MBO)

Acquisition of the firm by its own management in a leveraged buyout.


Mortgage-backed securities

Securities backed by a pool of mortgage loans.


Mortgage-Backed Securities Clearing Corporation

A wholly owned subsidiary of the Midwest Stock
Exchange that operates a clearing service for the comparison, netting, and margining of agency-guaranteed
MBSs transacted for forward delivery.


Normal backwardation theory

Holds that the futures price will be bid down to a level below the expected
spot price.


Payback

The length of time it takes to recover the initial cost of a project, without regard to the time value of money.


Payback

A method of investment appraisal that calculates the number of years taken for the cash flows from an investment to cover the initial capital outlay.


Payback

The length of time required for the net revenues of an investment for the net revenues of an investment to return the cost of the investment.


Payback method

A capital budgeting analysis method that calculates the amount of
time it will take to recoup the investment in a capital asset, with no regard for the
time cost of money.


Payback Period

The number of years necessary for the net cash flows of an
investment to equal the initial cash outlay


payback period

the time it takes an investor to recoup an
original investment through cash flows from a project


payback period

Time until cash flows recover the initial investment of the project.


Plowback rate

Related: retention rate.


plowback ratio

Fraction of earnings retained by the firm.


Protective put buying strategy

A strategy that involves buying a put option on the underlying security that is
held in a portfolio. Related: Hedge option strategies


Pure yield pickup swap

Moving to higher yield bonds.


Put swaption

A financial tool in which the buyer has the right, or option, to enter into a swap as a floatingrate
payer. The writer of the swaption therefore becomes the floating-rate receiver/fixed-rate payer.


Quanto swap

See: differential swap.


Rate anticipation swaps

An exchange of bonds in a portfolio for new bonds that will achieve the target
portfolio duration, based on the investor's assumptions about future changes in interest rates.


Sale and lease-back

Sale of an existing asset to a financial institution that then leases it back to the user.
Related: lease.


Sale and Leaseback

An agreement in which the owner of a property sells that property to a person or institution and then leases it back again for an agreed period and rental.


Stripped mortgage-backed securities (SMBSs)

Securities that redistribute the cash flows from the
underlying generic MBS collateral into the principal and interest components of the MBS to enhance their use
in meeting special needs of investors.


Substitution swap

A swap in which a money manager exchanges one bond for another bond that is similar in
terms of coupon, maturity, and credit quality, but offers a higher yield.


Swap

An arrangement whereby two companies lend to each other on different terms, e.g. in different
currencies, and/or at different interest rates, fixed or floating.


Swap

An exchange of cash flows between two counterparties. The
counterparties may exchange flows in different currencies
(currency swap) or exchange floating interest rate payments for
fixed rate payments (interest rate swap).


Swap

A contract between two parties to exchange cash flows in the future
according to some formula.


swap

Arrangement by two counterparties to exchange one stream of cash flows for another.


Swap assignment

Related: swap sale.


Swap optio

See: swaption.
Related: Quality option.


Swap rate

The difference between spot and forward rates expressed in points, e.g., $0.0001 per pound sterling.


Swap reversal

An interest rate swap designed to end a counterparty's role in another interest rate swap,
accomplished by counterbalancing the original swap in maturity, reference rate, and notional amount.


Swap sale

Also called a swap assignment, a transaction that ends one counterparty's role in an interest rate
swap by substituting a new counterparty whose credit is acceptable to the other original counterparty.


Swaption

Options on interest rate swaps. The buyer of a swaption has the right to enter into an interest rate
swap agreement by some specified date in the future. The swaption agreement will specify whether the buyer
of the swaption will be a fixed-rate receiver or a fixed-rate payer. The writer of the swaption becomes the
counterparty to the swap if the buyer exercises.


Swaption

A swap option; an option on an interest-rate swap. The option gives
the holder the right to enter into a contracted interest-rate swap at a specified
future date. See swap.


Tax clawback agreement

An agreement to contribute as equity to a project the value of all previously
realized project-related tax benefits not already clawed back to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency of the project.


Tax swap

swapping two similar bonds to receive a tax benefit.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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