Financial Terms

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Definition of Series

Series Image 1


Options: All option contracts of the same class that also have the same unit of trade, expiration date,
and exercise price. Stocks: shares which have common characteristics, such as rights to ownership and voting,
dividends, par value, etc. In the case of many foreign shares, one series may be owned only by citizens of the
country in which the stock is registered.

Related Terms:

Series bond

Bond that may be issued in several series under the same indenture.


the systematic assignment of an amount to a recipient
set of categories annuity a series of equal cash flows (either positive or negative) per period


A series of payments or deposits of equal size spaced evenly over
a specified period of time


A series of payments over a period of time. The payments are usually
in equal amounts and usually at regular intervals such as quarterly,
semi-annually, or annually.

annuity due

a series of equal cash flows being received or paid at the beginning of a period

Bar code

Information encoded into a series of bar and spaces of varying widths,
which can be automatically read and converted to text by a scanning device.


Usually a fixed interest security under which the issuer contracts to pay the lender a fixed principal amount at a stated date in the future, and a series of interest payments, either semi-annually or annually. Interest payments may vary through the life of bond.

Series Image 2

Capital budgeting

The series of steps one follows when justifying the decision to purchase
an asset, usually including an analysis of costs and related benefits, which
should include a discounted cash flow analysis of the stream of all future cash flows
resulting from the purchase of the asset.

Capitalization Rate

A discount rate used to find the present value of a series of future cash receipts. Sometimes called discount rate.

Closing purchase

A transaction in which the purchaser's intention is to reduce or eliminate a short position in
a stock, or in a given series of options.

Closing sale

A transaction in which the seller's intention is to reduce or eliminate a long position in a stock,
or a given series of options.

Currency swap

An agreement to swap a series of specified payment obligations denominated in one currency
for a series of specified payment obligations denominated in a different currency.


The process of finding the present value of a series of future cash flows. Discounting is the reverse of compounding.

First-pass regression

A time series regression to estimate the betas of securities portfolios.

Future Value

The amount a given payment, or series of payments, will be worth
at the end of a specified time period, if invested at a given rate

Future Value

The amount to which a payment or series of payments will grow by a given future date when compounded by a given interest rate. FVIF future value interest factor.

Series Image 3

Income Smoothing

A form of earnings management designed to remove peaks and valleys
from a normal earnings series. The practice includes taking steps to reduce and “store” profits
during good years for use during slower years.


A series of numbers measuring percentage changes over time from a base period. The index number for the base period is by convention set equal to 100.
Linking money payments to a price index to hold the real value of those money payments constant.

Installment sale

The sale of an asset in exchange for a specified series of payments (the installments).

Insured Retirement Plan

This is a recently coined phrase describing the concept of using Universal Life Insurance to tax shelter earnings which can be used to generate tax-free income in retirement. The concept has been described by some as "the most effective tax-neutralization strategy that exists in Canada today."
In addition to life insurance, a Universal Life Policy includes a tax-sheltered cash value fund that cannot exceed the policy's face value. Deposits made into the policy are partially used to fund the life insurance and partially grow tax sheltered inside the policy. It should be pointed out that in order for this to work, you must make deposits into this kind of policy well in excess of the cost of the underlying insurance. Investment of the cash value inside the policy are commonly mutual fund type investments. Upon retirement, the policy owner can draw on the accumulated capital in his/her policy by using the policy as collateral for a series of demand loans at the bank. The loans are structured so the sum of money borrowed plus interest never exceeds 75% of the accumulated investment account. The loans are only repaid with the tax free death benefit at the death of the policy holder. Any remaining funds are paid out tax free to named beneficiaries.
Recognizing the value to policy holders of this use of Universal Life Insurance, insurance companies are reworking features of their products to allow the policy holder to ask to have the relationship of insurance to investment growth tracked so that investment growth inside the policy may be maximized. The only potential downside of this strategy is the possibility of the government changing the tax rules to prohibit using a life insurance product in this manner.

Internal rate of return

The rate of return at which the present value of a series of future
cash flows equals the present value of all associated costs. This measure is most
commonly used in capital budgeting.

Internal rate of return (IRR)

A discounted cash flow technique used for investment appraisal that calculates the effective cost of capital that produces a net present value of zero from a series of future cash flows and an
initial capital investment.


the process of finding a term between two
other terms in a series

ISO 14000

a series of international standards that are designed
to support a company’s environmental protection
and pollution prevention goals in balance with socioeconomic

ISO 9000

a comprehensive series of international quality standards
that define the various design, material procurement,
production, quality-control, and delivery requirements and
procedures necessary to produce quality products and services

Leading economic indicators

Economic series that tend to rise or fall in advance of the rest of the economy.


A loan secured by the collateral of some specified real estate property which obliges the borrower
to make a predetermined series of payments.

Moving average

Used in charts and technical analysis, the average of security or commodity prices
constructed in a period as short as a few days or as Long as several years and showing trends for the latest
interval. As each new variable is included in calculating the average, the last variable of the series is deleted.

Opening purchase

A transaction in which the purchaser's intention is to create or increase a long position in
a given series of options.

Opening sale

A transaction in which the seller's intention is to create or increase a short position in a given
series of options.

ordinary annuity

a series of equal cash flows being received
or paid at the end of a period


A series of linked activities that result in a specific objective. For example, the
payroll process requires the calculation of hours worked, multiplication by hourly
rates, and the subtraction of taxes before the final objective is reached, which is the
printing of the paycheck.

R squared (R^2)

Square of the correlation coefficientthe proportion of the variability in one series that can be
explained by the variability of one or more other series.

Risk controlled arbitrage

A self-funding, self-hedged series of transactions that generally utilize mortgage
securities as the primary assets.


A run consists of a series of bid and offer quotes for different securities or maturities. Dealers give to and
ask for runs from each other.

Strip mortgage participation certificate (strip PC)

Ownership interests in specified mortgages purchased
by Freddie Mac from a single seller in exchange for strip PCs representing interests in the same mortgages.
Stripped bond Bond that can be subdivided into a series of zero-coupon bonds.

Structured arbitrage transaction

A self-funding, self-hedged series of transactions that usually utilize
mortgage securities as the primary assets.

Structured Settlement

Historically, damages paid out during settlement of personal physical injury cases were distributed in the form of a lump-sum cash payment to the plaintiff. This windfall was intended to provide for a lifetime of medical and income needs. The claimant or his/her family was then forced into the position of becoming the manager of a large sum of money.
In an effort to create a more financially stable arrangement for the claimant, the Structured Settlement was developed. A Structured Settlement is an alternative to a lump sum cash payment in the resolution of personal physical injury, wrongful death, or workers’ compensation cases. The settlement usually consists of two components: an up-front cash payment to provide for immediate needs and a series of future periodic payments which are funded by the defendant’s purchase of one or more annuity policies. Those payors make payments directly to the claimant. In the unfortunate event of the claimant’s death, a guaranteed portion of the settlement may be directed to a beneficiary or his/her estate.
A Structured Settlement is a guaranteed source of funds paid to the claimant or his/her family on a tax-free basis.


An accelerated depreciation method that makes the sum of the digits in an asset’s expected
life the denominator for a series of yearly depreciation fractions.
The numerators of these fractions are the asset’s years of life in reverse order.
An increasingly smaller depreciation fraction is applied to the asset’s (cost–salvage) value each year.

Underlying security

Options: the security subject to being purchased or sold upon exercise of an option
contract. For example, IBM stock is the underlying security to IBM options. Depository receipts: The class,
series and number of the foreign shares represented by the depository receipt.







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