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Definition of scarce resource

Scarce Resource Image 1

scarce resource

a resource that is essential to production
activity, but is available only in some limited quantity



Related Terms:

input-output coefficient

a number (prefaced as a multiplier
to an unknown variable) that indicates the rate at which each
decision variable uses up (or depletes) the scarce resource


Limiting factor

The production resource that, as a result of scarce resources, limits the production of goods
or services, i.e. a bottleneck.


enterprise resource planning (ERP) system

a packaged software program that allows a company to
(1) automate and integrate the majority of its business processes,
(2) share common data and practices across the entire enterprise, and
(3) produce and access information in a realtime environment


Enterprise resource planning system

A computer system used to manage all company
resources in the receipt, completion, and delivery of customer orders.


Manufacturing resource planning

An integrated, computerized system for planning
all manufacturing resources.



manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)

a fully integrated materials requirement planning system that involves
top management and provides a basis for both strategic
and tactical planning


Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)

An expansion of the material requirements planning concept, with additional computer-based capabilities in the areas of
direct labor and machine capacity planning.


Scarce Resource Image 2

strategic resource management

organizational planning for the deployment of resources to create value for customers and shareholders; key varibles in the process include the management of information and the management of change in response to threats and opportunities


ADF (annuity discount factor)

the present value of a finite stream of cash flows for every beginning $1 of cash flow.


Amortization factor

The pool factor implied by the scheduled amortization assuming no prepayemts.


Annuity factor

Present value of $1 paid for each of t periods.


annuity factor

Present value of an annuity of $1 per period.


Beta coefficient

A measurement of the extent to which the returns on a given stock move with stock market.


coefficient of correlation

a measure of dispersion that indicates the degree of relative association existing between two variables


Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an
asset explained by the market portfolio return.


coefficient of determination

a measure of dispersion that
indicates the “goodness of fit” of the actual observations
to the least squares regression line; indicates what proportion
of the total variation in y is explained by the regression model


Scarce Resource Image 1

coefficient of variation

a measure of risk used when the standard deviations for multiple projects are approximately
the same but the expected values are significantly different


Conversion factors

Rules set by the Chicago Board of Trade for determining the invoice price of each
acceptable deliverable Treasury issue against the Treasury Bond futures contract.



Correlation coefficient

A standardized statistical measure of the dependence of two random variables,
defined as the covariance divided by the standard deviations of two variables.


Correlation Coefficient

A measure of the tendency of two variables to change values
together


Correlation coefficient

A statistic in which the covariance is scaled to a
value between minus one (perfect negative correlation) and plus one (perfect
positive correlation).


critical success factors (CSF)

any item (such as quality, customer
service, efficiency, cost control, or responsiveness
to change) so important that, without it, the organization
would cease to exist


Discount factor

Present value of $1 received at a stated future date.


discount factor

Present value of a $1 future payment.


Factor

A financial institution that buys a firm's accounts receivables and collects the debt.


Factor

An agent who buys and sells goods on behalf of others for a commission.


Factor analysis

A statistical procedure that seeks to explain a certain phenomenon, such as the return on a
common stock, in terms of the behavior of a set of predictive factors.


Scarce Resource Image 2

Factor model

A way of decomposing the factors that influence a security's rate of return into common and
firm-specific influences.



Factor of Production

A resource used to produce a good or service. The main macroeconomic factors of production are capital and labor.


Factor portfolio

A well-diversified portfolio constructed to have a beta of 1.0 on one factor and a beta of
zero on any other factors.


Factoring

Sale of a firm's accounts receivable to a financial institution known as a factor.


Factoring

The sale of accounts receivable to a third party, with the third party bearing
the risk of loss if the accounts receivable cannot be collected.


Factoring

The discounting, or sale at a discount, of receivables on a nonrecourse, notification
basis. The purchaser of the accounts receivable, the factor, assumes full risk of collection and
credit losses, without recourse to the firms discounting the receivables. Customers are notified to
remit directly to the factor.


Factoring

Type of financial service whereby a firm sells or transfers title to its accounts receivable to a factoring company, which then acts as principal, not as agent.


Factory overhead

All the costs incurred during the manufacturing process, minus the
costs of direct labor and materials.


Full-Employment Output

The level of output produced by the economy when operating at the natural rate of unemployment.


Information Coefficient (IC)

The correlation between predicted and actual stock returns, sometimes used to
measure the value of a financial analyst. An IC of 1.0 indicates a perfect linear relationship between predicted
and actual returns, while an IC of 0.0 indicates no linear relationship.


Input-output tables

Tables that indicate how much each industry requires of the production of each other
industry in order to produce each dollar of its own output.


Interest Factor

Numbers found in compound interest and annuity tables. Usually called the FVIF or PVIF.


Maturity factoring

factoring arrangement that provides collection and insurance of accounts receivable.


Multifactor CAPM

A version of the capital asset pricing model derived by Merton that includes extramarket
sources of risk referred to as factor.


National Output

GDP.


Net benefit to leverage factor

A linear approximation of a factor, T*, that enables one to operationalize the
total impact of leverage on firm value in the capital market imperfections view of capital structure.


Old-line factoring

factoring arrangement that provides collection, insurance, and finance for accounts receivable.


One-factor APT

A special case of the arbitrage pricing theory that is derived from the one-factor model by
using diversification and arbitrage. It shows the expected return on any risky asset is a linear function of a
single factor.


Output Gap

The difference between full employment output and current output.


Pool factor

The outstanding principal balance divided by the original principal balance with the result
expressed as a decimal. Pool factors are published monthly by the Bond Buyer newspaper for Ginnie Mae,
Fannie Mae, and Freddie Mac(Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation) MBSs.


Potential Output or Potential GDP

output produced when the economy is operating at its natural rate of unemployment.


PPF (periodic perpetuity factor)

a generalization formula invented by Abrams that is the present value of regular but noncontiguous cash flows that have constant growth to perpetuity.


Present value factor

factor used to calculate an estimate of the present value of an amount to be received in
a future period.


Reported factor

The pool factor as reported by the bond buyer for a given amortization period.


Scrap factor

An anticipated loss percentage included in the bill of material and
used to order extra materials for a production run, in anticipation of scrap losses.


Shrinkage factor

The expected loss of some proportion of an item during the
production process, expressed as a percentage.


Single factor model

A model of security returns that acknowledges only one common factor.
See: factor model.


Two-factor model

Black's zero-beta version of the capital asset pricing model.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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